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Mabel Hoggard: lesson plans and textbooks

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1922 to 1952
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Folder of materials from the Mabel Hoggard Papers (MS-00565) -- Educational work and legacy file. The folder contains a "Teachers' manual for human geography," teaching notes, notes on United States history, assignments, and an exam book with handwritten notes. Many of the documents are handwritten.

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man000692
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man000692. Mabel Hoggard Papers, 1903-2011. MS-00565. Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Las Vegas, Nevada. http://n2t.net/ark:/62930/d1g73bg3m

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TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

BOOK I
PEOPLES AND COUNTRIES

BY Z/I' '

JOHN M. FOOTE
DIVISION OF REFERENCE AND SCIENCE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION OF LOUISIANA

WITH A FOREWORD BY
J. RUSSELL SMITH

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY

Chicago PHILADELPHIA Toronto

DALLAS SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA

FOREWORD BY J. RUSSELL SMITH

This Manual was made to aid teachers who use “Human Geography,” Book I, Peoples and Countries. The book will be used by teachers who have had different kinds of preparation— some will have graduated from college; some others will have had special training in the art and science of teaching; some will have traveled in this and in foreign countries. But many who teach this book will begin as I did with my first class in geography, having none of the above-mentioned advantages and only so much geography as remained from my study of it in

the elementary school.
Since this Manual has been prepared to aid all kinds of teachers in all kinds of schools, it

is suggestive along larger lines of teaching the text. However, some type lessons have been included.

. Inexperienced teachers are urged to read the opening chapters of this Manual before starting their classwork. Most teachers will be profited by consulting it section by section before teaching or assigning the corresponding parts of the book.

There will be much difference in the amount of work that can be accomplished in different schools, and accordingly this Manual contains suggestions for minimum essentials, things that should be attained even where teachers are crowded for time and limited in equipment. Beyond this, other suggestions are given for those who have more time for geography, and who have access to libraries and other teaching aids. In general this additional matter is given under the topic Special Exercises.” The distinction between minimum essentials and what might be taught should always be kept in mind.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER
T_ PAGE I. Introduction..........................................................................

TEACHERS’ MANUAL f o r HUMAN GEOGRAPHY BOOK I
PEOPLES AND COUNTRIES

II. General Suggestions.............................................................. HI. How to Teach Geography..........................................................

IV. Teaching Outlines.................................................................... North America................................................................................ South America................................................................... Europe....................................................................... Africa..........................................................................................

.............

” ’ $ ?

Chapter I INTRODUCTION

A Content Subject.—Geography is one of the most important of the content subjects. It is taught in practically every elementary school in all civilized countries. The study is universal because geographic knowledge is a need common to all enlightened people. During the past few years, there has been a great awakening of interest in this subject.

Practical Needs.—The practical needs of geog­ raphy are greater to-day than ever before. A back­ ground of geographic principles and a large fund of geographic knowledge are necessary for the intelligent reading of newspapers; for the interpre­ tation of maps and atlases; for the understanding and solution of local, national and foreign problems; for the conduct of modern business within our own land and of foreign commerce reaching to the four corners of the earth. The practical needs are varied and wide in their application.

Cultural Value.—Of equal importance is the cultural value. With the single exception of litera­ ture, no subject in the elementary curriculum makes so great a contribution to what we term a liberal education. It breaks through the barriers of prejudice, national and racial antagonisms; it measurably broadens man’s conception of the world, enlarges his appreciation of nature, of other lands, and other peoples. When well taught, it develops initiative, reasoning power and ability to meet and solve new situations.

How Realized.—Neither the practical nor the cultural values will be realized if the teaching is largely confined to long lists of places, physical features, textbook memorizing, and the like. The content of the textbook and other sources of material must be carefully organized around the important geographic centers or units. The teaching and lesson planning must be based on these large units. Such intensive concrete treatment, involving thought questions and problems, and supported by ample fact material, will insure valuable and instructive work.

Chapter II GENERAL SUGGESTIONS

The Textbook.—Get thoroughly acquainted with the textbook. Study the author’s introductory statements so as to understand his views, purposes, and aims, and how he endeavors to realize them. Examine the table of contents and read the subject matter. Go through the maps, pictures and ques­ tions. Look over the reference tables, diagrams and the index. The text is much more than a tool, —it is the principal source of information; it is the organization of a great body of material around a comparatively few large geographic units of study.

The children should be taught to read a section quickly, to find and organize the leading facts bear­ ing upon a question or problem, and to generalize the principal thought. They must be taught how to use the questions, maps, pictures, reference tables and the index. Definite, clear assignments in the form of questions, problems, references, map­ studies, and the like should precede study. In the beginning, and as occasion may require thereafter, the teacher should go over the lesson with the class for the purpose of illustrating how to study effec­ tively.

Local Materials.—While the formal study of geography is usually not begun before the fourth grade, the child is not plunged into the textbook without a large amount of incidental preparation for this highly interesting subject. Numerous facts and a useful body of information are acquired from the home region.

The immediate surroundings of the school, the home, and the neighboring country furnish a rich source of material with which the child should be reasonably familiar. Land and water forms, trades and industries, travel and transportation,—all furnish concrete material for the understanding of similar geographic conditions as they are treated in the text. Constant comparison of the familiar with the unknown builds up accurate images and ideas. A few carefully planned field excursions will organize such local materials into geographic facts and ideas. The hill on which the school is located, the moun­ tains in the distance, the valley below, the falling rain, the growing crops, the railroad transportation,

Asia............................. . ..................... ......... „. .......................................................................................................... 24

Australasia......................................... References for Teachers.......

......................................................................................................................................

„„

2 b

2f

It is believed that Book I of the Human Geog­
raphy series, together with the suggestive methods
and outlines contained in this manual, makes it —all of these may be familiar local experiences possible for the teacher to realize the practical and
cultural values of geography in the intermediate
grades. Geography will be a real live, vital, inter­
esting study to the children when modern materials
and methods are substituted for the “bone-dry”
encyclopedic treatment so commonly used.

Copyright 1931, 1922, by The John C. Winston Company All rights reserved

awaiting translation into geographic ideas at the hands of the teacher. When their local significance is understood, a background- is established for the interpretation of similar conditions elsewhere.

20

„„

(1)

Much geographic content is included in the sub­ ject matter of the first three grades. Reading,

2 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

' HOW TO TEACH GEOGRAPHY

nature study, history and community civics all contain material which, if organized, would be termed geography activities. In these primary grades they frequently include well-organized projects from the study of the home, the farm, the community or store, etc. The readers contain stories of Indian and Eskimo life, other selections contain material relating to the products, occupa­ tions, industries, and climatic conditions of our own country and foreign lands.

With this rich background of information and concrete experience the child is adequately prepared to begin the study of Peoples and Countries. The position taken by many that the fourth grade child is entirely without preparation for the study of geography, and that he must necessarily begin with his immediate surroundings cannot be successfully sustained.

GlobeandMaps.—A globe is essential in teaching the shape, the relative size and the movements of the earth, and its relation to the sun and moon. No school can afford to be without one. Other equipment should include large colored physical and political wall maps of the United States, the world and each of the continents. Wall outline maps of continents and the blank black roller map are very helpful.

Current News.—Current newspapers and maga­ zines are filled with live interesting geographic material related to local, national and foreign questions. Encourage the pupils to read these publications and make contributions to the class. Train them to'read publications, to observe the geographic material and report to the class.

A typical daily paper of the Middle West recently examined contained in one issue eight articles on the first page, three on the second, two on the third, and a half dozen more scattered through the rest of the paper, every one of which contained geographic material, or required a knowledge of geography to be read intelligently. Every continent was included. Several of the articles would give excellent bases for problem study.

Collections.—When studying a country or a large subject, the teacher should encourage the pupils to collect for class use as many specimens or articles relating to the subject as possible. Rocks, soils, minerals, woods, products, and so on may be assembled, put in boxes or bottles, or mounted on cardboard, properly labeled and made ready for teaching purposes. When studying the Indians of the Great North Woods, it stimulates interest to get together and use a collection of Indian relics, beads, arrow-points, basketry, etc. Sources from which such material can be obtained free or at small cost are suggested throughout the Manual. Begin collecting in advance of your needs. Assign to one child or a committee the task of securing and

preparing for use the specimens needed for the study of wheat, to another the needs of corn, and so on.

Pictures.—Pictures are entitled to special mention. In their several forms they are most valuable aids in teaching geography. They tell interesting stories, they assist in making ideas concrete, they give vivid impressions of distant places and people, they add a touch of reality to the printed page. Direct the attention of the child to the pictures of the text and teach him to read them as you do the printed page. They come from several sources, but most important is the text. They have been carefully chosen to illustrate the subject being taught. While it is highly desirable to use pictures from other sources, it is not likely that they will contribute nearly as much as those accompanying the subject matter of the textbook.

Advantage should be taken of the child’s natural desire to collect pictures. Make special assignments to individuals or committees for the collecting of pictures on given subjects, as lumber, the New England fisheries, cotton, western irrigation, etc. Pictures from magazines, advertisements, photo­ graphs and post cards should be carefully selected, and then classified according to subjects, countries, or industries, and filed in heavy envelopes properly labeled for repeated use.

The value of the stereoscope, the lantern slide and the moving picture for class instruction is generally recognized. They all have certain special advan­ tages and are recommended for use. The cost of either is still relatively high for the advantages to be obtained. The first gives the depth and realistic effect of seeing the object with two eyes in contrast with the monocular view of the ordinary picture. The moving picture is particularly adapted to presenting subjects involving important processes and successive changes. A word of caution is in order in respect to the exaggerated claims commonly made for pictures produced by means of these machines. The enthusiastic assertions that they are to revolutionize our education are yet to be proved.

Games.—A variation in the form of a simple game may be used occasionally to relieve the drill work that is necessary in reviewing place geography. “A what and where and why-notable contest” is popular and easily used. For example, when re­ viewing the United States each child may hand in to the teacher five or ten names of important cities or states. From these lists the teacher calls the places one at a time. A pupil is called upon to answer. The pupil who submitted the name of the place passes upon the correctness of the recitation. The pupil making the highest score is declared the winner of the contest.

Maps.—The use of the maps in the text and such

others as may be available should become habitual. The pupils must be taught to read a map just as thoroughly as the printed page. The symbols for land and water forms, boundaries, location, dis­ tance, and the like must mean real concrete things and not merely line and colors. Map studies should include thought-provoking questions. For example, why are there more large cities along the Great Lakes than on the Mississippi River? Why was the Erie Canal built? Would you expect the Mississippi to be of greater value than the Colorado? Raise questions which require the use of more than one map; e. g., study the physical, rainfall, and popu­ lation maps of the United States and account for the distribution of population. Refer frequently to the maps in solving questions and problems. Tine teacher will find that the text introduces the study of maps by very simple illustrations, and gradually builds up ability to do more advanced map work.

3

of written material bearing on the important topics developed in the class.

Graphs and Diagrams.—Teachers and pupils should make use of graphs and diagrams for the purpose of explaining or visualizing physical features, varying production of some crops, or comparing industrial processes. By means of a simple black­ board illustration, a cross section of a river valley, a delta, a glacier, or a plateau may be vividly im­ pressed. Cross sections should always be made in connection with perspective views. Sacks of pro­ portionate size will give a clear comparison of wheat

The making, tracing, and drawing of maps has
received undue emphasis in the past. Spending
long hours in the artistic execution of maps may
constitute a good drawing lesson or be a pleasant
hobby for the teacher, but when subjected to the
test of real geographic value it must be classed as
a minor part of the subject. There are, however, work. They should include pictures, clippings, many topics or subjects where both teacher and diagrams, map sketches, solutions of problems, pupil should use ready map-sketching as a quick and

graphic means of illustrating or imaging of a geo­ graphic condition. Simple outline maps will pic­ ture the distribution of rainfall, population, various products and other important data. Both pupils and teacher should develop skill in simple map­ sketching on the blackboard as well as on paper. Accuracy in small details is unnecessary.

Models.—Formerly a great deal of time was spent in the modeling of continents, countries, and the various land forms in clay, sand or a mixture of flour and salt. Much effort was expended in the artistic execution of those models. It is generally recognized now that work of this nature should be done for the sole purpose of representing a geographic fact or situation. It should be executed rapidly, and may becrudelymade. Theideatobeillustratedisessen­ tial, the artistic value is secondary. An ordinary board and pan of sand or clay is sufficient to meet the usual needs. Or, better still is to use the yard for modeling. It must be pointed out here that when the geographic idea or fact to be illustrated can be seen from the window or is in the neighborhood, it is unnecessary to resort to modeling. If the child passes by a river and climbs a hill on the way to school he does not need modeling of any kind to give him clear images of them.

Charts.—A valuable and interesting class exercise or simple project is the making of one or more charts of the people or country under discussion. They may contain pictures, sample products, simple maps,

simple stories, and the like. Each pupil may well undertake the making of one or more booklets; or the preparation of a series could be assigned as class projects. Give credit in proportion to the contribu­ tion made by each pupil. Exercises of this nature not only afford opportunities for written work, artistic designing and other forms of expression, but they aid in concreting and expanding important geographic ideas. They assist in solving problems and developing initiative.

Chapter III
HOW TO TEACH GEOGRAPHY General Aims and Methods

Importance of Method.—While the first essential in teaching geography is a full and deep knowledge of the subject, of no less importance is HOW TO TEACH IT. Success depends on the latter as well as on the former. How to teach this complex sub­ ject involves a clear conception of the aims of instruc­ tion and an understanding of the principles of meth­ od, a knowledge of lesson planning in the light of these aims and principles, and finally the ability to carry them over into actual teaching procedure in the classroom. The following aims of instruction, principles of method, illustrative lessons, and explanatory statements will be a distinct aid in guiding teachers in the use and selection of materials, and in the choice of the most effective methods.

production in different countries.
throw much light on distances.
may be used to compare areas.
devices increases the clearness of the description or explanation. The diagrams used in explaining a problem or a situation may be rapidly drawn and appear crude, but if ample description accompanies them the ideas will still be clearly visualized. Pupils should be taught to express their thoughts through the medium of simple diagrams and graphs.

Books and Booklets.—The making of scrapbooks or booklets of material bearing upon given coun­ tries or subjects will stimulate much interest in the

Heavy lines will A series of squares The use of these

4 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

HOW TO TEACH GEOGRAPHY

5

The illustrative lessons will suggest how to organize different kinds of geographical subject matter. Teachers are urged to amplify the brief treatment here given by reading at least a few of the references at the conclusion of the Manual. Should any find it impracticable to do this they may be assured that no grievous error will be made in following the brief directions and teaching outlines of the Manual and the Textbook.

Principles and Aims of Instruction.—

should be comparatively simple and easy of compre­ hension, but they must be thoroughly taught so that repetition of the same material will be unnecessary in the grammar grades.

4. Place emphasis upon the interpretation of information. Organizing the materials around important topics or large units will accomplish this. They form the basis for contrast, comparison, and the classification of similar geographic materials.

5. Endeavor to teach thoroughly a few large sub­ jects or types in each grade rather than a great number of minor ones.

cate the tasK, for the principal processes may be readily learned and applied. The use of several methods makes the subject interesting, vivid and concrete for the children.

Methods to Use.—The methods recommended for Book I are: the problem, type study, story, journey, excursion, project, and map study. They will organize geography materials around large units or problems, arouse in children an interest in follow­ ing out geographic ideas to the ends they serve, and subordinate mere facts to large topics and subjects. There is necessarily wide overlapping in the use of these several methods. A type study should include problems to solve; a problem may well be solved through afield excursion, or a map study lesson, and so on. The teacher selects and applies the method

best suited to the subject matter and the purposes she wishes to accomplish. The illustrations in Chapter IV offer very definite suggestions to the teacher.

General Suggestions for the Recitation The interesting style in which Human Geography is written will attract inquisitive and imaginative boys and girls. The task of the teacher is very much lightened as a result thereof, but the requirements of good teaching procedure and the development of habits of thorough study on the part of the pupils

with a summary or application of the material studied. For an illustration, see the Problem Lesson on the Eskimo, p. 16.

The recitation must be a learning period, not merely a time for hearing lessons. Procedure in accordance with the four steps above mentioned will accomplish this.

Questions of the Text.—The questions of the text are splendid for assignment, class discussion and for written tests. They have been carefully chosen, and, to satisfy the varying needs of individual pupils, are usually grouped into three paragraphs in order of difficulty.

Develop Initiative.—One of the most impor­ tant functions of the school is the development of initiative and self-reliance in pupils. To develop initiative in pupils they must exercise initiative, and the class period must supply the opportunity. To secure this result the recitation period must be modi­ fied. The teacher must become less prominent and

give the pupils the opportunity to do most of the planning, thinking and executing while she directs andstimulates. SeetheplanfortheProblemLesson on the Eskimo.

The Small Rural School.—The preceding sug­ gestions for the conduct of the recitation are recom­ mended for the small rural school as well as for the larger school of the city or town. They can be executed in the small school if the teachers realize

1. Geography is the study of the relation between
man and nature; the study of man’s contact with
the physical world; the study of the earth as the concerned with local geography. The child’s

experience with nature and his information of the local region are the bases for judging distant regions. Children are interested in their own land and will become interested in other lands and other people when they can understand them.

7. The field excursions from time to time to observe and study the home neighborhood will organize the pupil’s store of information and experi­ ence around geographic units. They should be planned before going. Definite assignments should be made. Observation lessons make geography real and concrete.

8. In the intermediate grades, especially the fourth, the topics should receive rich oral descrip­ tive treatment. The geographic conditions or ideas should be made concrete and real through demon­ strations and by oral presentation and skillful ques­ tioning. The story of the Chinese (p. 313) will become highly interesting and instructive when given in the form of rich oral discussion. Thought questions and problems tend to grow out of teaching of this kind.

9. Provide review lessons which focus attention on essential features and summaries of the country or subject studied. Make comparisons with and applications to similar problems or units previously taught.

Principles of Method.—
1. Effective instruction requires that the materi­ subordinate points of large subjects and topics, it is

home of man.
2. It teaches the interdependence of man and his

dependence on nature.
3. It is a content subject. It should give the

child a rich body of information and geographic knowledge, so that he may understand his relations to nature and to.society. It should also train him to observe, to read maps, to do ready map sketching, to investigate, to organize subject matter, to appre­ ciate and interpret national and local problems, and to think clearly and straight on geographic topics.

4. Formal or “sailor geography”, or place geogra­ phy, can best be learned as essential details of the descriptive treatment of more important subjects. The story of a people, the rich full description of a country or region will teach in an interesting way more formal geography than is possible by the anti­ quated bone-dry encyclopedic methods commonly used. The descriptive concrete treatment of im­ portant subjects given in Book I makes geography real and vital. It teaches abstract things concretely. The Eskimo, p. 1, and The Chinese Tea Growers,

p. 313, are illustrations.
5. Geography has become a science concerned

with the interpretation of present physical, social and economic conditions.

are just as necessary as ever. If the teacher’s work their opportunities. There are three important

is to parallel in newness and pedagogic correctness conditions favoring the small school that tend to

the modern plan and attractive style of the text, she overcome some of its administrative limitations. will be interested in improving the recitation First, several grades to the teacher with the conse­

necessary to offer drill lessons from time to time to aid in fixing in the memory certain essentials of loca­ tion, areas, generalizations, definitions, etc. As the minimum essentials have never been agreed upon, the teacher must use her own judgment in deter­ mining them.

Need of Various Methods.—The necessity for several methods of teaching becomes obvious when it is realized that geography is a manifold subject drawing its materials from many sources. While the materials of Human Geography, Book I, are organized around man in his relation to the earth

as his home, the variety of these relations and activ­

ities necessitates the use of more than one method 3. The units of study in the intermediate grades for effective teaching. This fact need not compli­

the text, maps, and references. With books open and maps at hand show the pupils how to stud}' a section of the text, read a map, or examine a refer­ ence in answering the assignment. As ability to do work of this kind increases, the pupils may be placed more on their own resources. Teaching pupils how to attack and master the materials used in the study of geography cannot be too strongly emphasized.

After study, there should be a brief oral or written test to ascertain whether the assignment and the essential facts have been learned satisfactorily.

tion period to assign the lesson and show the pupils how to study it. Expect them to prepare it thor­ oughly during the long study time spent at their seats. At first, supervise their study. They will need

als be organized around large subjects, units, types, basic ideas, or problems. For example, coal and iron production in Western Pennsylvania (see text p. 136) is a large subject of study involving many problems and varied facts and principles of geogra­ phy. It becomes at once a basis for the interpreta­ tion of similar geographic conditions wherever found. The same is true of petroleum (text p. 118).

2. Treat the subject or unit of study as a whole. The organizing idea may be in the background, but it should control the selection of material and the method of procedure. Important parts should stand out clearly but must relate to the principal

Show the slower pupils Train them in good The next day, use the

subject.

The recitation-review step should include a vigor­
ous oral discussion of the assignment, the details of
what has been studied, comparisons and contrasts
with other subjects previously studied, and close enable the teacher to assign longer lessons, and

6. The first stages of organized -work should be

10. While the fact materials are best learned as

period.
The Four Steps.—As a rule, the steps in the

recitation period should be assignments, study, oral or written test, recitation-review. The lessons of the text can easily be organized around these four steps. The material covered during one recitation should usually be presented in accordance with these four steps. Or an entire chapter, using several recita­ tion periods, may be so organized and taught.

quent short class periods necessarily means long study time for the pupils at their desks; second, few pupils to a class affords an opportunity for basing the teaching largely upon the individual needs of the pupils: third, limited numbers also provides the opportunity for individual initiative with the conse­ quent growth of self-reliance.

In organizing the lessons around the four steps as above suggested, a suggestion with regard to the use

Make definite, clear assignments of problems of of the long study time may help. Use one recita­

suggestions on how to work.
better ways of doing things.
habits of using the text, etc.
time of the second recitation period for the brief test and the oral recitation-review. Do not hesitate to extend the lesson over two recitation periods on separate days. Should the material be long or difficult it may be extended over three or four periods and as many days. The long periods for seat-study and the opportunity for individual teaching should

TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES

7

should go far toward overcoming certain adminis­ trative conditions confronting the small school.

Illustrative Lessons

1. The Problem Method
A problem is the statement of a large geographic

unit of study or idea, usually in the form of a ques­ tion, the working out or solution of which requires the. study of a variety of facts and principles of climate, surface, products, population and industries. It becomes the center around which these facts are gathered and organized. It directs and controls the work with the text, maps, and references. It gives the pupil a definite aim for which to work. It stim- ulates independent thinking and reflection, arouses

learning how it is that the Eskimos can live and be happy without the many things that we civilized people have?

Study.—State the problem and briefly explain its meaning. Read the text pp. 1 to 6. The teacher should locate our own land and Eskimo land on the maps on pp. 20, 34, 35, 44, and 45 of the text. Do the same on the globe and on a wall map of North America. How could you travel to Eskimo land? How far is it? What kind of country would you find? Name the countries and bodies of water you can find in Eskimo land.

Again read the text, finding correct answers to questions 1 to 7 on p. 6.

Test—Prepare and place on the blackboard a

Transportation, elevators, storage,

written test of ten or fifteen fact questions; e. g., discussion and thought-provoking questions. It’is Where is the Eskimo country? Why is it cold?

with more information, more facts of geography and history, give a deeper insight into their meanings, and build up a sounder background for the interpre­ tation of other cities over the entire country than is possible through the day to day procedure com­ monly prevailing.

The test.—Fortunately for the teacher and the pupils, Human Geography deals with large units of study. Big ideas are concretely described or told in story form. Around them are organized the sub­ ordinate geography materials. It lends itself freely to larger lesson planning based on well-organized big topics.

6. The use of machinery in the production and manufacture of wheat: text, Sec. 75, 76, 80 and 81; Type Study, pp. 16 and 30. Examine pictures in the text. Exportation of machinery.

7. Compare and contrast with other wheat-pro­ ducing areas in the U. S. and in foreign lands: text, Secs. 78, 79, 81, 82, 105, 148, 173, 263, 295, 327, 370, 399, 403, 431; Type Studies, pp. 26 to 39. Wheat exports, see Reference Table No. X.

8. Compare wheat with other grain crops of the United States—corn, rice, barley, oats. Lay empha­ sis on quantity, value, area of production, and uses. Text Secs. 60-74, 84, 173; Figs. 79, 80, 87, 90 and 100; Type Study, pp. 40-43.

9. Review and generalize by calling for a brief reproduction of the description of the wheat farm and its activities. Summarize the essential points developed under cultivating, harvesting, marketing,

of paramount importance that assignments include one or more problems within the experience and ability of the pupils. Solving them gives that feeling of satisfaction which comes with accomplishment.

What does the Eskimo eat? What does he wear? In what kind of house does he live? How does he travel? What does he use for fuel and light?

Recitation-review.—Call for a reproduction of the story. Have a vigorous discussion using the questions in the text and those used in the written

Note.—For an excellent treatment of teaching by
type studies the reader is referred to the writings of
Dr. C. A. McMurry. He published a large number
of careflluy prepared geography type studies
adapted for use in the elementary grades. Type
Studies and Lesson Plans, Volume III, No. 1, manufacturing, machinery, other producing areas,

In the text the author has very properly provided
numerous problems in the questions at the end of
each chapter. The teacher and pupils are expected test. Have a strong pupil state the problem. Ask to use them.

The teacher should train the pupils to apply the following questions. They will aid in finding and solving problems and in thoughtful reading.

(1) What is the subject of the lesson?
(2) List the leading topics.
(3) What facts do you know about them?
(4) 'What is not clear in this lesson?
(5) What additional facts do you need to know?

Their purpose is to aid the pupils in developing independent habits of study. For example, these questions may be applied to the problem of How Fishing Helped Start Manufacturing in New England. (See text, p. 153.)

The Eskimo

Problem.—How does the Eskimo live without trading with the people of other lands?

Time required.—Three to five recitation periods on as many days will probably be required. One entire period could well be used in demonstrating to the class how to attack the text, maps and refer­ ences successfully. As pupils gain ability to work independently they should be permitted to do so at their desks, or in the recitation period under the

guidance of the teacher.
Assignment.—We live in comfortable homes,

have abundance of good food, wear beautiful clothes, travel on railroads and steamships, have fine roads, automobiles and many other luxuries. The Eskimos are a people who do not have any of thes# things; they live off to themselves and have very little trade or communication with the outside world. Could we live that way? Would you be interested in

for a summary telling how a primitive people live without trading or communicating with the outside world. Compare and contrast Eskimo life with our own. Review and drill on the map studies.

Special exercises.—Write a story of the whale that Shoo-e-ging-wa found. Make a chart or book­ let on Eskimo life.

Supplementary reading.—Read chapter, “The Far North and the Far South,” on pp. 100-120 of World Folks, by J. Russell Smith.

2. The Type Study Method

The type study is the detailed treatment of a basic geographic idea or unit around which important and extensive groupings of facts and principles can take place. It has two clearly marked stages. First the idea is given rich concrete descriptive study. The second stage is that of expansion and enlargement. Such a large unit of study centers in some important

practical enterprise like the operation of a railroad, or in a physical feature as a glacier, a river basin, and the like. As the basic idea is developed it gathers to itself an instructive and valuable body of knowledge. It becomes the key that unlocks the door to a large number of similar undertakings, or

geographic features. The lesson plan for the study of the wheat farm that follows illustrates the method and its two stages.

Large lesson planning demanded.—The type study demands that the fragmentary planning of daily lessons must be supplanted by a large simple plan requiring a whole series of lessons, all organized

around the central topic. In the same degree that

presents in detail “Method of Handling Types as Large Units of Study. ”

A Wheat Farm

Materials.—(1) Text, pp. 59 to 65.
and pictures, pp. 58 to 65. Physical and political map, p. 69. (3) Type Studies and Lesson Plans, Volume II, No. 6, “A Wheat Farm in North Da­ kota,” by Dr. C. A. McMurry.

Lesson topics or units.—The following series of lessons is organized around a wheat farm. The first stage—the rich concrete description is given in the first lesson. In the succeeding lessons the idea is expanded and grows to include milling, marketing and wheat-producing regions of this and foreign lands. This is the second stage. The principal lesson units and brief comments thereon are here given. While the text gives a comparatively full and rich treatment of wheat, it should be supple­

and comparison with other grain crops.
10. Offer a review drill lesson on the place geog­

raphy used in teaching the series of lessons.
Special exercises.—Write the story of “A Grain of Wheat.” Prepare written statements telling why this region, the North Central States, is called “The bread basket of the world.” Order samples of wheat products from one of the large mills at Minneapolis or elsewhere. Assemble wheat specimens and pic­ tures. Have the class prepare a wheat booklet or chart. An observation lesson to view the harvesting of wheat, or a trip to a flour mill would be very

valuable.
Supplementary reading.—A short, but delightful

letter, about a wheat farm may be found in Home Folks, a Geography for Beginners, by J. Russell Smith.

Comments.—It is expected that the teaching of this type study will require from ten to fifteen class recitations. The procedure will necessarily vary with the different lessons and the purpose of the

miscellaneous day by day planning is wasteful of
time and scattered in organization, to that degree
does the large unit of study economize time and
increase coherence and organization. A topic such
as Chicago as a trade center will furnish the child Emphasize Minneapolis as a great milling center.

of a wheat farm in the valley of the Red River of the North. Type Study, pp. 9 to 11; text, Sec. 78. Note details of location—maps pp. 62, 68 and 69.

2. Problems of operating a wheat farm: soil, climate, plantings, enemies; examine pictures of the text pp. 60 and 61.

3. Harvesting: text, Sec. 76; Type Study, pp. 16 to 18. Cutting, stacking, threshing, labor difficul­ ties and other problems.

trated in the problem lesson above.

Chapter IV

TEACHING OUTLINES Part I—North America

The teacher finds each chapter of the text, Human Geography, outlined in the following pages. The breadth of the subject and the varied teaching con­

(2) Maps

mented by the type study above mentioned. Both teacher; however she will find that the materials are necessary in teaching the series of lessons. outlined lend themselves easily to the four steps of 1. Present a vivid concrete description and study assignments, study, text, recitation-review, as illus­

21, 32 and 33. prices, selling, etc.

4. Marketing: text, Sec. 77; Type Study, pp. 19, ditions do not permit that they be planned around

5. The manufacture of flour and other wheat products: text, Sec. 80; Type Study,pp. 24,25and26.

8 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES 9

What do they sell and man. Compare it with previous stories about the what do they buy in return? Tell the story of the Eskimo and the Indian. Read extracts from

any one method or procedure. Being general and flexible, the teacher has ample opportunity to adapt them to the method or procedure that best suits her purposes. They do, however, endeavor to reflect the author’s general theme—Peoples and Countries.

Follow course of study.—Teachers and super­ visory officers will understand that the lesson out­ lines are prepared to satisfy general conditions. When the course of study is at variance with the order of arrangement or the method of treatment herein provided, it is expected that the course of study will be followed.

Questions to help the teacher.—The questions given in the lesson plans are intended to render direct aidtotheteacherinconductingtherecitation. They are leading questions to assign to the pupils for study and preparation.

Special exercises.—Many of the lesson outlines are followed by one or several special exercises. They are for the purpose of indicating to the teacher additional questions or problems and activities which may be prepared by the entire class or by individual pupils or committees. They are to be used at the option of the teacher.

Time requirements.—It is not desirable to lay down fixed requirements as to the amount of time that should be given to any division or chapters. The time element is influenced very largely by the

location of the school, the plans of the teacher, and the demands of the course of study. However, the following suggestions will assist any teacher who may be in doubt regarding the distribution of the time allotted to geography. First, give a liberal number of recitations to the group of states in which you live. Twenty recitations averaging thirty minutes on the home group is a reasonable number;

while eight or ten is sufficient for the average state group. Second, several chapters will need additional time because of their difficulty. This is true of the four chapters on the Earth and Maps. It is also true of the several “General View’’lessons, the first of which is on. p. 75 of the text. Four or five recitations could well be given to the chapter on maps, Sec. 16-23. The general view teaching out­ line could properly take the time of three periods. Third, other chapters are less difficult or are pre­

sented in simple narrative form and may be con­ densed Within the space of one or two recitations. The Codfisherman, p. 11, the Coconut Grower, p. 172, the Swiss Mountain People, p. 247, and Over the Roof of the World, p. 339, are chapters that permit of less intensive treatment.

MEN AND TRADE

In the first three chapters the author gives a picture of three different kinds of people living under different conditions with and with­

out trade and civilization on the earth. First, the Eskimo represents the most primitive life. He lives almost without contact with the outside world. Second, the Indian of Northern Canada is a picture of the semi-civilized life that enjoys some few of the advantages that come with simple industry and trade. Third, the Codfisherman is illustrative of the civilized life that results from the industrious production of an important food, and the consequent trade the sale of a single product produces. Con­ stant comparison should be made with our home land with emphasis upon the advantages we enjoy as a

result of highly developed trade and commerce.

1. The Eskimo

Materials.—Text, Secs. 1-5; pictures; maps, pp. 20, 24, 26, 34 and 35; globe.

Teaching outline.—Introduce the lesson by a discussion of how our needs are supplied. How do we get our food, clothing, shelter, and many luxuries? Are any of these things made by your mother or your father? Who makes them? Why? How do we get them? What do railroads and steamships and stores and shops do for us? What must we do to earn and enjoy the use of so many things made by other people? The Eskimos live so far away in a verycoldcountrythatotherpeopleseldomtradewith them or even go to see them. Could you live that

way? Would you enjoy learning about these people who have to make everything they use, and find or catch their own food?

trade with the white men?

Assign the chapter for study.
pupils how to read for thought.
answers to the questions at the end of the chapter. Use the maps to locate and study physical features of Eskimo land.

What use does the Eskimo make of the seal? Why did Shoo-e-ging-wa go home so fast when she saw the dead whale? Why was it so valuable?

Special exercises. Imagineatrip to Eskimo land. Tell about the direction you would go, the distance, how long you would travel, etc. What would you take to the Eskimo children? What would you like tobringbackinreturn? Whatchangesinthelivesof

these people would take place if they were to trade with other countries?

Life in Eskimo land will be made more real if one or more stories of the accomplishments of Peary, Stefansson, Amundsen, and Byrd are told to the children or placed in their hands for reading.

2. The Indians of the Great North Woods

Materials—Text, Secs. 6-11; pictures; maps, pp. 24, 26, 34, and 37; globe.

Lesson outline.—Who has seen an Indian? They formerly lived all over our land of America. How did the early Indians live? What happened to them? Where do we still find many Indians? Do they

Compare the Indian with the Eskimo with special reference to trading with other people, climate, location, etc.

Prepare a list of the things the Indians do for themselves. Make a list of what they buy from the trading post.

Make a collection of pictures of Indian life. Show by pictures the different stages of the fur trade from the wild animal in the woods to the finished furs we wear.

Devote a few minutes to a map study of this region. A few lessons of this kind will soon familiar­ ize the children with the reading of maps and their interpretation.

Special exercise.—The scene at the trading post may be made the subject of a simple drama by leav­ ing the pupils to enact the parts of the Indian family, post keeper, and others.

Supplementary reading. — J. Russell Smith: World Folks, pp. 1-37, The American Indians; Heard and King: Stories of American Pioneers, The John C. Winston Company.

3. The Codfisherman Materials.—Text, Secs. 12-15; maps on pp. 20,

24, 25, 26, 34 and 35; globe; pictures.
Lesson outline.—This lesson may well begin with

map studies of the Labrador region, placing empha­ sis on direction, distance, area, bodies of land and water, and climatic conditions. Use maps and globe. Refer to pictures.

Give concrete descriptive treatment of the cod­ fisherman. Where does he fish? What of the weather? In summer and winter? Where are the icebergs from? Why must he fish for a living? Catching the cod—the journey, the trawl line, etc. What sometimes happens to the fisherman? Where are the fish prepared for market? Where are they shipped? Can you buy them in the store?

What does the codfisherman buy in return for his fish? Compare with the Indian and the Eskimo. Enumerate a few of the many things that he has as a result of producing a valuable product and trading with other parts of the world.

Special exercises.—Write a story of a codfisher­

Demonstrate to the Show how to find

Indians of the family coming to the post to trade. Describe the trip to the hunting grounds. How does Otelne know when the time for trapping has come? How does he tell direction when he cannot

Kipling’s Captains Courageous.
Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith’s

World Folks, pp. 240-258, contains an excellent

discussion of fishing as an industry among seacoast see the sun? Tell of the trapping, the animals peoples.

caught, the bear.
When trapping season is over what does Otelne do?

How far is it to the post? He sells his furs and receives what in return? What becomes of the furs

THE WORLD AND MAPS

Maps
Materials.—Text, Sec. 16-23; picturesand maps,

pp. 14-31; a globe; a small compass.
Teaching outline.—This new and important

subject must be carefully prepared. Use enough periods to go over Secs. 16-23 with the pupils, read­ ing, doing, discussing, and applying each section. When this is completed assign for study the first five questions on page 18. Expect the pupils to recite and discuss intelligently Secs. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22.

Use additional problem-questions; e. g., How could you find your way if you were lost? By means of a simple map of your community show how you would direct a stranger to the hotel, church, courthouse, railroad station, the schoolhouse, and other places. Sketch two or three of the principal roads of your county so that an automobile visitor could travel to the principal places of interest.

Sec. 23 tells us there are many kinds of maps to show different things. Examine the following figures long enough to see that they have different purposes; find out the purpose of each. See Figs. 26, 27, 28, 31, 33, 38, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 60, 61, 62, 65, 79, 87, and 88. Answer qq. 6 to 8 if time permits.

THE GLOBE, THE CONTINENTS, THE OCEANS, THE HEMISPHERES

Materials.—Text, Secs. 24-29; maps, pictures and diagrams, pp. 19-28; globe; baseball and light. Divide into three parts, A, B, C.

Teaching outline.—It is so important that the child get a clear notion of the shape of the earth, its main land and water divisions, its daily motion, and the two poles, that the teacher should go over these topics with books open and materials at hand.

A. Take Secs. 24 and 25 first. Use all pictures that illustrate the facts stated. Show by illustration that the earth is round.

B. Secs. 26 and 27. Demonstrate the daily rotation of the earth on its axis. Show what causes night and day, reproducing the illustration of Fig. 35. Note that when the earth and sun occupy this rela­ tive position the north pole is dark and the south pole is light. Raise the question: Is this always true? Place the globe on the opposite side of the lamp, keeping the axis in the same position. What change is noted? Slowly move the globe around the

the Indians sell to the white men? Indian benefited by trading?

How is the

10 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES

11

Tell some of the causes

lamp, keeping it revolving, and ask the pupils to observe what changes take place. Do not attempt to carry this subject further as it is too difficult for pupils of this grade.

In illustrating the hemispheres the teacher should have several apples so that they can be cut in two in different ways to show that hemisphere is always half. In applying this idea to the earth use Figs. 31 and 36-39. The lamp experiment shown in Fig. 35 should be used again to demonstrate that one- half, or a hemisphere, is always turned toward the sun.

When the study and demonstrations are finished,
assign the questions of the text for study and learning geography we must learn to read them

recitation.
Special exercises.—Prove that the earth is round.

Beginning with the land of the Eskimo travel to Panama at the extreme south and tell what climatic conditions would be found. What kind of country is Greenland? What is a glacier? Compare our climate with that of Greenland, and that of Central America.

Special exercises.—Read in the elementary history the stories of the settlement of the countries of the New World. Read extracts from Longfellow’s “Courtship of Miles Standish,” and “Evangeline.”

Give a few minutes review on place geography of the continents. The pupils should be able to name and locate each country, and describe its principal physical features and tell something of the climate.

Trade and Government

Materials.—Text, Secs. 52-55; maps, pp. 44-46.

Teaching outline.—Assign the chapter and the questions for study.

Why do ships go but once a year for trading with the Eskimos of Greenland? Why is trade with the Indians of the Great North Woods so much easier? How does our density of population, temperate climate, and highly developed civilization influence trade? Examine Fig. 61.

What do you know about the sheriff, the police­ man, courts, public buildings, roads, schools, etc. Why do the Eskimo and Indian get along with so

How did Byrd know when he reached the north
pole? Why do we say the sun rises and sets? face shown? What are the symbols for the principal

Name and locate the continents and oceans. What land and water forms? How is elevation pictured?

did Columbus and Magellan each do?
Examine Fig. 31 carefully. Imagine that you are the man in the moon looking down at the earth. There are four views you would see. What do they

How is distance from one place to another found? Make a list of the different kinds of physical features shown on this map. After preliminary study offer drill on quick responses to geographical facts shown

tell you? Name the colors. What does each repre­ by maps; e. g., What does this map tell us of sent? Which color predominates? Which next? Florida? Alaska? Mississippi River? Locate

What do so much blue, white and yellow mean? Where is most of the animal and vegetable life? Where do most of the people live? What does so much water mean with reference to shipping and

trade?

LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, AND ZONES

your home town or county on the globe and on the map of the United States.

Write a postcard to the United States Geological Survey Bureau, Washington, D. C., for a surface map of your county.

Sketch the northern part of North America showing the lands of the Eskimo, Indian, and Cod­

Materials.—Text, Secs. 30-34; the maps on fisherman.

pp. 29-31; globe. A class project could well be the drawing of a Teaching outline.—There has necessarily been county map on the blackboard or large sheet of some incidental teaching of these subjects in the paper, showing the physical features and political

two preceding lessons. Study Sec. 30 of the pre­ ceding chapter carefully. Use the globe and the

subdivisions.

NORTH AMERICA
The Continent Materials.—Text, Secs. 35-46; maps; pictures.

Teaching outline.—The purpose of this chapter is to give the child a general notion of the continent— its physical features, political subdivisions, people, products, activities, natural wonders; etc. No better plan could be followed than one which the author

Sec. 34. Mark zones on basket ball with different colors. Make the idea or conception of the zones accurate and concrete by comparing and contrasting

orange skin cut as in Fig. 41.
introduction to the chapter.
and questions of the text.
need of lines like parallels and meridians by raising the question of locating a house in a town or city. In much the same way we locate a city, lake or other place on the earth—that is, by giving its dis­ tance north or south of a base line like a central street, and its distance east or west of some other particular base line.

This will serve as an Assign the treatment Sec. 31 introduces the

Illustrate latitude, longitude, and zones by using
a large orange or a basket ball. Insert pins in
orange for the two poles, or mark them clearly on
the basket ball. Draw the equator at points equi­ Figs. 31, 47, 48, 49, and 65, are all used. Teach distant therefrom. Add the parallels of latitude
and the meridians of longitude. Compare with the
globe and Figs. 44 and 45.

the manner in which the people live, the varied products, animal life, and climatic conditions. The previous lessons on the Eskimo and the Indian furnish a ready basis for this: Secs. 244 and 268 may be used for life in the Torrid Zone. Why is the Temperate Zone the best place to live?

The causes for the seasons should be deferred until the pupils are in a higher grade, but the facts of the four seasons, the changes they bring about in climate and the results on life and activities should be mentioned.

Offer thorough drill on qq. 6-15 of the text.

accurately and quickly. Illustrate by using the map of the physical features of North America, see Fig. 48. How is general location on the earth’s sur­

Countries and Climate

Materials.—Text, Secs. 47-51; pictures; maps, pp. 37 and 48.

Teaching outline.—What are the boundaries of your father’s farm? of your country? Do you know how they were determined? Are they natural?

How does it happen that we have several countries in North America? Who settled our country? What does the Fourth of July mean to us? Why is it that New Orleans has many people of French

ized as quickly as possible?
that have made us a great nation.

Special exercises.—If maps are to serve us in

Alaska? Mexico? Do they all have Locate each coun­

It is a splendid type of journey lesson Have the pupils take the imagined

Problem.—Show that our country is a much better place to live because of superior trade facili­ ties and a good government.

The United States

Materials.—Text,Secs.56-59; mapsandpictures, pp. 46-52.

Teaching outline.—Why is the United States such a desirable place in which to live? Tell of the growth. See Fig. 62. How do the people of one section help those of another?

From what countries have many of our people come? Why should foreigners become American-

chart.
its uses.
several stages of decay.

has adopted.
in story form.
journey east and west and north and south by read­ ing and reproducing the interesting story. Be sure that a class exercise is conducted in which maps,

Give proper attention to the maps and pictures of the text. What does Fig. 80 tell us about world trade? Draw a simple map of this group of states. Make a map showing the corn production of the United States.

Write to your state department of agriculture for bulletins on corn.

Supplementary reading.—McMurry, C. A..'Type Studies, Corn, Vol. I, No. 11; J. Russell Smith: Industrial and Commercial Geography, pp. 82-101; J. Russell Smith: Home Folks, pp. 50-53; 71-73;

thoroughly the ideas shown in all the pictures. Link these pictures with the corresponding map markings Try to have children visualize map representations of mountains by Figs. 23, 50, 53, 55, 117, 122, and 128; of a plateau by Figs. 52, 132, 150; of a plain by Figs. 67 and 95.

descent? Who settled Canada?
Central America? Greenland?
independent governments now?
try and learn something of its physical features.

Give a lesson to the study of maps, Figs. 62, 63, 64, and 65. Measure the length and width of the country. Compare with other countries of North America. Name and locate the principal physical features, cities, etc. Have each pupil make a simple

map sketching physical features, locating principal places, etc.

The North Central States

Corn and Soil

Materials.—Text, Secs. 60-74; maps and pictures, pp. 47-59; samples of corn and corn products; speci­ mens of soil including rock and stone..

Teaching outline.—Problem. Let us find out why the North Central Group of States is the best place in the world to grow corn.

Assign the whole chapter and the questions for study. Vary the assignment according to the ability of the pupils, i. e., expect all to prepare the first eight or ten questions, the best two-thirds to get up the first fourteen or fifteen questions, and the strong­ est one-third to recite well on the full list of questions.

Why is it so much easier for us to grow corn than it was for the poor Indian? Where is the surplus sold? What is meant by exporting corn? Name all the products of corn that you can. For what is each used?

Examine several specimens of soil, rock, stone, and sand. How is soil made? What is the effect of heat, cold, water, running streams, etc.

How did Jerry Moore become famous? Are you a member of a corn club? If you are not, write to the agricultural extension department of your state university or agricultural college for information.

List and discuss the reasons why this group of states is the best place in the world to grow corn. Compare with corn production of other state groups and other countries.—See Secs. 84, 112, 172, 178, 263, and 490.

Special exercises.—Write a short story of “A Grain of Corn” telling of the planting, cultivation, harvesting, shipping, and final use. Make a corn

little government? good government?

Why do you think we have a

Assemble a group of pictures on corn and Collect specimens of soil illustrating the

12 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY , BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES 13

as a guide for organizing and presenting similar sheep? Examine Figs. 89 and 120 and see if you general view chapters of other state groups. can find any relation between little rainfall and sheep

Materials.—Text, Secs. 99-105; maps and pic­ raising.
tures, pp. 52-80; Reference Tables at the end of the Study the physical and political map of the book; wall maps; Index. Plateau States, also look at Figs. 52, 88 and 117.

Teaching outline.—What is the population of How does this group compare in surface, rivers,

Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: Home Folks, pp. 56-63.

Mining

Materials.—Text, Secs. 117-123; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 82-89.

Teaching outline.—Exhibit any ore you may have. What metal is gotten from this mixture of earth 'and stone and metal? What metals can you

Whittier: The Huskers, a type of poem to be used in connection with the teaching of the topic of corn.

Wheat

Materials.—Text, Secs. 75-82; pictures and maps, pp. 58-65; reference tables and index at the back of the book.

Teaching outline.—Assign the treatment in the text and the questions. The difficult questions may be given to the strongest pupils.

Problem questions.—Why is this'one of the best regions in the world for growing wheat? Look for wheat in the index and find what is said under each page reference. What part does machinery play in the production and manufacture of wheat? Com­ pare wheat and corn as the two greatest grain crops. Which is the more useful to man?

Special excerises.—Compare Figs. 79, 87, 88 and 100. Compare Figs. 80, 89, and 90. Mention the physical features and climatic conditions that are favorable for wheat production.

Look up what is said about the exportation of wheat in Reference Table X at the back of the book. What does this mean for foreign trade and trans­ portation?

One pupil may write to the Pillsbury Milling Company for a copy of “The Kernell’s Story”; another may write to the Northwestern Consoli­ dated Milling Company for a copy of “From Wheat to Flour.” Both companies are in Minneapolis.

Appoint a committee to collect pictures on wheat, another to secure samples of wheat products.

Compare with the production of cattle and hogs in other countries. Show the pupils how to do this by finding the page references to both cattle and hogs in the Index. They must learn to do work of this nature independently.

Special exercises.—Compare Figs. 79 and 100. What story do they tell? Write to Swift and Com­ pany, Chicago, asking for their booklet describing a trip through their plant.

Lumber

Materials.—Text, Secs. 91-98; maps and pictures, pp. 71-75.

Teaching outline.—Is there a forest near your home? If so, tell what kind of trees grow in it. Are they manufactured into lumber? Describe the proc­ ess beginning with the trees in the forest. Where is the lumber region of this group of states we are studying? What kind of trees grow there? What time of the year is the logging done? Why? Imagine a trip to a Wisconsin lumber camp and describe what you would see. If you have seen a sawmill, tell how the logs are manufactured into lumber.

What are the varied uses of lumber? What different kinds were used in the building and furnish­ ing of this schoolhouse? your home?

Locate the Northeastern, Southeastern, and West­ ern lumber regions. What kinds of lumber are pro­ duced in each? Where do London, Liverpool, Glas­ gow, and Palermo get their lumber? See Fig. 109.

rainfall, products, population, etc., with the North Central States? Why are they called Plateau States?

Are our methods of lumbering wasteful? What Supplementary reading.—McMurry, C. A.: A will be the result if a change is not made? What do

South? West?
The questions of the text should be assigned and

thoroughly prepared. They include summaries of the preceding chapters, map studies, and drill upon the physical and political features.

doned? Why is Butte, Montana, so notable? List the metals found in this group of states. Describe the several ways in which gold is mined. In what kind of region are these minerals usually found?

Wheat Farm in North Dakota, Vol. 11, No. 6. J. Russell Smith: Home Folks, pp. 85-87; Industrial and Commercial Geography, pp. 41-64.

Cattle and Hogs

Material.—Text, Secs. 83-90; maps and pictures, pp. 65-70.

the countries of Europe do to protect their forests and insure continued growth? Could we get along without lumber? What must we do?

Special excerises.—Send a committee to the local lumber dealer to find out the different kinds of woods he sells, what each is used for, and where they are from.

Write to your state forestry department and to the United States forestry department for informa­ tion on forestry. Study Fig. 108 and tell why we have national forests.

In what other countries of North and South Special exercises.—Assign to committees or the America are gold, silver, and copper found? See strongest pupils the task of finding out what is said Fig. 279. What is said of the gold mines of Africa?

Teaching outline.—This lesson may well be organ­
ized around the problems of how the farmer markets
his corn. Draw a simple illustration of a grain of
corn on the blackboard. With a few strokes of the
crayon add an eye, tail, and four feet, and we have a
fat hog ready for market. Wiry does the farmer Home Folks, pp. 45-47; North America. (See

other parts of the world. Show them how to use the Index in doing work of this kind.

Prepare and study as a class exercise, three black­ board maps showing respectively the physical and political features, the raw products, and the manu­ factures of the region.

The Plateau States

Sheep and Wool Materials.—Text, Secs. 107-116; maps and pic­

tures, pp. 82-85.
Teaching outline.—Our clothing is made prin­

cipally from wool, cotton, silk, and linen. We are going to find out to-day where the wool comes from that is used to make our clothes. Read the text.

How does it happen that we wear second-hand clothes? Have you any sheep on your farm? Describe the shearing. What is done with the wool? How is it made into cloth?

Describe the life of a sheepherder. What is a sheepherder called in the Bible? How are the sheep cared for in the winter? What other countries raise

Special exercises.—Collect samples of any min­ erals there may be in your locality. Make a list of the uses of copper, gold, and lead.

Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: North America. (See Index references under Min­ ing, Gold, Silver, and Copper.}

General View

Materials.—Text, Secs. 124—131; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 82-96; Reference Tables; Index.

Teaching outline.—The purpose here is similar to that stated for the lesson on the general review of the North Central States. Assign the text and questions. Give special attention to irrigation and beautiful scenery. The questions provide drill upon map studies and general summaries.

Special exercises.—Find out what Reference Tables IV, VI, VII, IX, and X tell of the Plateau States.

Study Fig. 135. Read the type study given in the reference and then the story of the Roosevelt dam on Salt River. Read what is said about irri­

market most of his corn by feeding hogs? Why does he not market his wheat in the same way? What other domestic animals does the farmer raise and ship to market? Show why this group of states is a good section for raising live stock.

Name and locate the cities that have large meat­ packing plants. If anyone has visited one of these great plants give him the opportunity of telling about it.

Do we import or export meat? See Reference TableX. TraceashipmentfromChicagotoLondon. See Fig. 40.

Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: references under Lumbering in Index.)

A General View of the North Central States

Note.—The purpose of this chapter is to present the important geographic materials that have neces­ sarily been omitted in the preceding lessons; to review the large subjects taught under this group of states; to round out the study; and to provide some drill upon the essential physical and political features.

The teaching outline that follows should be used

this group of states? Give and discuss in detail the
four reasons that have caused so many people to
come into this region. Show how the Great Lakes
have been of such great help. Trace the water
route from Chicago to New York. Do the same of wool. Assemble a series of pictures on this with the rail route. Why was it necessary to build

the Welland Canal? The Erie Canal?
What are the factors and influences that have

made Chicago a great trade center? What is manu­ factured there? What is the relation of Duluth to Cleveland and Pittsburgh? Find in Reference Table IX the fourteen cities referred to in Sec. 100. What facts are given about each? Try to find why each is important.

A general review can be had by working through
the problems: Why are the North Central States name that are used in building houses? railroads? called “the bread-basket” of the world? Why is in making cutlery? personal ornaments? We will one-third of the manufacturing of the United States find in the text a veriy nteresting story telling us

about mining in the Plateau States and what metals List the raw products and the manufactures. are produced.

done here?
What do you eat or W’ear or use that is produced Tell the story of the prospector and the mining

here? What do these states bring in from the East? town. Why are mining towns sometimes aban­

about lumbering, wheat, corn, and livestock in See Fig. 425.

Special exercises.—Makeacharttellingthestory industry.

14 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES 15

Teaching outline.—The teacher is referred to the outlines previously given for similar lessons on other state groups. Do not lose sight of the fact

gation in other parts of the world. Find this by referring to irrigation in the Index.

Make individual assignments to several of the strongest pupils to study and report on the following: The “Pony Express”; Frontier Life. Why is there so little rainfall? Who are the Mormons? The production of beet sugar. Yellowstone Park. Why are there so few railroads in the West?

Supplementary reading.—The Pony Express and Frontier Life will be found described in the life of W. F. Cody. McMurry, C. A.: Type Study, The Salt River Project.

The Pacific States and Alaska

Oranges and Dried Fruit

Materials.—Text, Secs. 132-136; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 97-99.

for market. Trace shipments of salmon from the Columbia River to New York; to New Orleans; to London.

Supplementary reading.—David Starr Jordan: The Story of the Salmon; Hillyer: A Child’s Geogra­ phy of the World, pp. 103-104; J. Russell Smith:

North America, pp. 625-626.
General View of the Pacific States and Alaska

Materials.—Text, Secs. 142-155; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 96-110; Index; Reference Tables.

Teaching outline.—This lesson gives a general view of this group of states and Alaska, reviews the preceding lessons, drills on physical and political features, and presents a number of valuable problem questions. It is similar to the previous lessons giving- general views of state groups and should be taught

Egyptian cotton? Why? What is the purpose of
the cotton gin? the cotton compress? Examine
Fig. 162 and tell what effect the boll weevill has on
the growing cotton. To what foreign countries do that this is the time to bring in important topics

Teaching outline.—We have learned something in much the same way. Use the text and questions of our bread, our meat, and our clothing. Would freely. Use the Reference Tables and Index as was

tion, marketing, manufacturing, and selling. Ex­ amine a cross section of an automobile tire and find what part cotton contributes to it.

the United States is in the Mississippi Valley? What makes New Orleans a great seaport? List the imports and exports. Why is lumbering a large

you now like to learn the story of our fruits? indicated in the first lesson of this kind.

Make special assignments of the following topics: industry? Information about the rice industry Overflows and levees on the lower Mississippi. may be had on application to the Southern Rice Production of cotton in other regions of the world, Millers Association, New Orleans. The Chamber see Index. Compare the Nile and Mississippi of Commerce of New Orleans will send information Valleys as cotton regions. about the development of the port and harbor

Does your father raise fruit on his farm? Tell us Why is this section called a “wonderland”? 'Why

about it. Describe the orange growing in California. is there little rainfall east of the mountains? Locate

Why is irrigation necessary? What are the advan­ Death Valley. Why so called? Locate the Imperial tages of cooperative marketing? What other fruits Valley. Why is it so famous? Locate the wheat

Supplementary reading. — McMurry, C. A.: facilities. Type Studies, Cotton, Vol. I, No. II; J. Russell

are produced? What are dried fruits? What kind region and compare -with that of the North Central

Smith: North America (See The Cotton Belt, pp. 237-273); Home Folks, pp. 79-81.

Petroleum

Materials.—Secs.’ 163-168; maps and pictures, pp. 112 and 118.

Teaching outline.—Name the different kinds of greases and oils used on the farm; in your home; in operating a tractor and an automobile. Of what use would machinery be without oil? automobiles without gasoline? Make a list of all the uses of petroleum that you can think of or find. Write the Standard Oil Company, 26 Broadway, New York, for a copy of “The Story of Oil.”

Problems and questions.—Where is oil produced in this group of states? In what other state groups? In what foreign countries? How is oil formed? What is a “gusher”? See Fig. 167. Why are pipe lines used? The primary process in refining oil is called “distillation”; can you explain this? How does it happen that our country produces and uses more petroleum than others?

Special exercises.—Special assignments may include the following: What is natural gas, for what used, and where found? What is a “tanker”? Account for the location of large oil refineries at Baton Rouge, New Orleans, and Port Arthur. Should laws be passed to conserve our natural gas resources?

Supplementary reading.—Tower, W. S.: The Story of Oil.

General View of the South Central States

Materials—Text, Secs. 169-178; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 111—124; Reference Tables and Index.

The South Atlantic States

of climate is necessary? Why is the winter on the Pacific Coast warm? What is said of other fruit­ growing regions? How do the railroads and steam­ ship lines help build up the fruit industry?

Special exercises.—Make a California picture exhibit. List the products the Pacific States send to the East, and list those that are sent in return.

Assign the following topics to the strongest pupils for study and report: Los Angeles as the center of

States.
Special exercises.—Make individual assignments

to the strongest pupils as follows: The early history

of California. The discovery of gold and the forty-

niners. What do we send to Asia and what do we

receive in return? The gold rush to Alaska. The

lumber industry of Washington and Oregon. The

Panama Canal. The seal islands. Write to the

Vegetables, Peanuts and Naval Stores

Materials.—Text, Secs. 179-182; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 125-128.

Teaching outline.—What does this section sup­ ply to the northern markets in the winter? Why is the coast section from Delaware to Florida so well adapted to growing vegetables and fruit? Why is Baltimore a great canning center? Tell something of the peanut industry. What different things are made from them? What are naval stores? How made? For what used?

Special exercises.—Assemble as many pictures as you can on this group of states; classify them according to industries. What is meant by “tur­ pentining” a pine forest? How are turpentine and rosin made? List all the uses you can for naval stores.

Cotton Cloth

Materials.—Text, Secs. 183-185; pictures, pp. 129-130.

Teaching outline.—Review the study of cotton as taught under the South Central States. How did people make cotton cloth by hand many years ago? What made cotton cheaper than wool or linen? What other inventions reduce the cost of manufacture? Send a committee to a large dry goods store to list and find the place of manufacture of all the different kinds of cotton cloth and cotton

clothes. From this classification try to find out what kinds of cloth are made in the South, in the New England States, and in England. What are the advantages in locating cotton mills in this region?

chambers of commerce in several of the principal the motion-picture industry; The Pacific Coast as a cities for information concerning the cities and

winter resort; Seattle and San Francisco as great regions in which they are located. Pacific trading ports.

Supplementary reading.—C. A. McMurry: Type
Studies, The Golden Gate and Crossing the Cascades,
Vol. I, No. IV; J. Russell Smith: North America.
(See Index references to oranges, dried fruits, and tures, pp. 111-124.

cooperation.) Teaching outline.—Just as the North Central The Pacific Salmon States produce wheat, the principal food crop, so do Materials.—Text, Secs. 137-141; maps and pic­ the South Central States produce cotton, the leading

tures, pp. 97-103.
Teaching outline.—This chapter is a delightful

product from which cloth and clothes are manu­ factured.

story of the sea salmon. It should be read and
reproduced as such. Variety can be introduced and
the interest intensified by an imagined journey
and the detailed experiences of the young salmon What are the uses of cottonseed? Bring samples if from the icy cold lakes, at the source of the Columbia

river, to the sea, their growth to maturity, and return up the stream. Use the wall map.

How do the Indians of Alaska cure and protect their salmon? How does the white man preserve and market the salmon? What does the govern­ ment do to aid the industry? Locate Alaska and other places where salmon are caught and prepared

possible. Look through various periodicals and collect advertisements about anything that is made wholly or in part from cotton or cottonseed.

Describe a cotton boll, the growing, picking, ginning, and marketing of cotton. Examine the cotton map, Fig. 163. Why is this group and the South Atlantic Group of states so well adapted to the growing of cotton? Where are we growing

The South Central States

Cotton and Deltas

Materials.—Text, Secs. 156-178; maps and pic­

Name as many things made from cotton as you can. Bring to class as many samples of cotton cloth or articles in which cotton is used as you can.

we ship cotton? Do we ship very much? See Reference Table X.

that necessarily are omitted in the treatment of cotton and petroleum. Rice, sugar cane, tobacco, lumbering, manufacturing, population, cities, ch-

Examine Figs. 164 and 165 and tell what a delta
is and how it is formed. Find one in your neighbor­ mate, map studies—all must be given sufficient

hood. Look at the mouth of the Mississippi River in Fig. 159; tell why it has several outlets and why such a large arm of land projects out into the Gulf of Mexico.

attention to round out the study of this group of states.

Special exercises.—Problems for special assign­ ment and .report: Why is agriculture the most important industry of this section? How has the

Special exercises.—Collect a series of pictures on
cotton. Classify them under the heads of produc­ Mississippi River aided agriculture? How much of

16 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY , BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES 17

What is water power and why is it cheap? Why has New England taken cotton from the South for so many years and manufactured it into cloth?

Special exercises—Refer to the Index and find out in what other countries cotton is made into cloth. Make a cloth chart, classifying the samples according to the place of manufacture.

Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: World F olks. (See Index references under weaving and doth.)

General View of the South Atlantic States

Materials.—Text, Secs. 186-190; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 125-135; Reference Tables; Index.

Teaching outline.—Refer to the previous out­ lines on similar lessons. (See pp. 12, 13.) The teacher is again reminded that this is the time to unify the treatment of this group of states, to review the lessons that have just been taught, to drill on map studies, and to compare with other state groups.

Special exercises.—The following problems and questions can well be assigned to committees for special study and report: Why have the South Atlantic States more industries and manufactures than those of the South Central Group? Why has this group such a varied climate? Why is it de.sir- able to drain swamp lands? What is the Inland Waterway? Report on Baltimore as a great trade and manufacturing city. Make a full report on Washington as the seat of the national government.

called the “Smoky City”? Make a list of as many different kinds of iron and steel products as you can. Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: Home Folks, pp. 235-238; The Story of Iron and

Account for the differences. Why has Philadelphia grown to be the third largest city in the United States? Why is Independence Hall (see Fig. 225) the most notable historical shrine in the United States? For what are Atlantic City, Niagara Falls, and the Adirondack Mountains notable?

The New England States
How Fishing Helped Start Manufacturing

Materials.—Text, Secs. 214—219; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 154-157.

Teaching outline.—Contrast the old days and the new in New England and then assign the follow­ ing problems to be answered by a study of the text and questions: How did codfishing help start man­ ufacturing? Why does such a large part of the population now live in cities and work in factories? Show how each of the following factors has helped to make New England our greatest manufacturing section: location and seacoast, trading, ship build­ ing, lumbering, water power, railroads, making cloth and shoes.

Special exercises.—Of what service are light­ houses and life-saving stations? Find out all you can about the fishing industry of Gloucester, Boston, and Portland. Make two lists, one showing what New England brings in and the second showing what is sent out.

The Manufactures Materials.—Text, Secs. 220-230; maps and pic­

tures, pp. 154—164.
Teaching outline.—Review the conditions dis­

been outlined for similar lessons on other state groups. Use the text, the questions, the Reference Tables and the Index according to previous suggestions.

Special exercises.—Itwill be highlyinstructive if some of the following subjects can be looked up and reported on as class or special assignments: Points of historical interest in New England. Faneuil Hall. Education. Harvard University. Salem and ship building. Great contributors to American literature. The Pilgrims and the May­ flower.

Supplementary reading.— Hillyer: A Child’s Geography, pp. 60-65.

General Review of the United States

Materials.—Text, Secs. 56—230; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 46-164.

Teaching outline.—A general review of the United States may be approached in many different

What other cities have grown for the same Locate the seaports and list ten things that are reasons? Account for the growth of cities along

The purpose is to review certain minimum essen­ tials and to aid in fixing them in the memory. The teacher should sketch on the blackboard at different lesson periods three or four outline maps on which the pupils will draw or write responses to ques­ tions. Use the first map for the physical features; the second for political subdivisions, cities, and transportation lines; the third for products; and the fourth for manufactures. As soon as the pupils understand what is expected, require them to pre­ pare individual maps of the same kind.

exported and imported.
Middle Atlantic States

Coal and Iron

the route of the Erie Canal.
Special exercises. List the imports and exports

that go through New York and tell what you can of

each. . Make picture collections or charts on the

cussed in the preceding lesson which favored manu­
facturing in New England. What influence have The Northern Countries of North America

Materials.—Text, Secs. 191-198; maps and pic­ following subjects: shipping and foreign trade;

the good harbors and water power had? How is the manufacturing different from that of the Middle Atlantic States? Compare Figs. 232 and 224. What trade is carried on with other states and foreign lands? What do you wear or use in the home or on the farm that is made in New England? What is produced in your neighborhood that goes to New England?

Special exercises.—The brightest pupils may reasonably be expected to study and report on selected topics, e. g., the shoe industry; making fine cotton goods; quarrying; lumbering in Maine years ago and as it is to-day; Boston as a seaport; what problems grow out of bringing in so many foreigners to work in the factories?

Supplementary reading. — J. Russell Smith: North America, pp. 70-91; Huntington and Cush­ ing: Business Geography.

General View of the New England States

General View

Materials.—Text, Secs. 231—243; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 165-171.

Teaching outline.—Recall the stories of the Eskimo and the Indian of the Great North Woods. Compare Canada with the United States with respect to size, population and industrial develon- ment. What are some of the many good reasons for the differences? What are some of the many points of similarity between the two countries?

Tell the story of Scott McDonald—his farm life, trapping, making maple sugar, why his uncle moved to Saskatchewan, his cousin in the dairy business in the St. Lawrence Valley, a cooperative cream-- ery, etc.

What is said of trade and transportation routes? Fisheries? Newfoundland? Labrador? Danish America?

Special exercises.—Compare Eastern Canada with New England; the region from Winnipeg to

tures, pp. 136-142. railroad and canal transportation; factories in New

Teaching outline.—How was iron first made? York; buildings and street scenes. Why is New

How long ago? Why was it so important to ancient people? Why did Wilkes-Barre and Scranton become iron centers? What reasons caused.Pitts­ burgh to become the greatest iron center in the world? Describe the new way of making iron. Who are the workers in the coal and iron industries? How can these foreigners become Americanized? What advantages does Pennsylvania have because of its great coal deposits? What countries of Europe produce much coal and iron? How has coal and iron helped to make the United States a great nation?

York the greatest financial center of America? What are canal locks and why necessary?

Special exercises.—List and locate all the large
cities in this group that are important because of the
iron and coal industries. Refer to the Index and
find out what you can about the production of these
two minerals in other parts of the world. Use the
maps on pages 141 and 142. Assemble a large num­
ber of pictures on these industries. Collect a few Y1’ Til, VIII, IX, and X? Compare the popula­

Materials—Text, Secs. 223-230; maps and pic­ the Rockies with the region from Minnesota to tures, pp. 154-164; Reference Tables and Index. Idaho; British Columbia with Washington and

specimens of iron and coal. Why is Pittsburgh tion of this group of states with other groups.

Teaching outline.—Conduct this lesson as has

Steel; North America. coal and iron.)

(See Index references under

A Great Trading City and a Great Trade Route

Materials.—Secs. 199-205; maps and pictures, pp. 138-147; Reference Tables and Index.

Teaching outline.—Problem: Why has New York grown to be the largest city in the world and the greatest trading center in America? The text gives in simple attractive narrative form the answer to this difficult question. Study carefully Sec. 199, the pictures and map, and Reference Tables VIII and IX, to give the class some idea of the location, size, business, trade, transportation, and manufac­ tures of New York. Let us see what things caused

this great city to grow, and why it is such a good place to buy and sell.

Emphasize the following topics: location; growth of the western country; necessity for trade; build­ ing the Erie Canal and the results; growth of great railroads; the harbor; steamship lines; growth of manufactures as a result of great stocks of raw materials; nearness of coal fields; foreign commerce. Vigorous discussion of these topics as they contribute to the greatness and growth of New York easily solves the problem for the children.

ways. One is here suggested. liberty to use any other.

The teacher is at

Supplementary reading.—J. North America, pp. 121-131,

Russell

Smith:

General View of the Middle Atlantic States

Materials.—Text, Secs. 206-213; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 136-153; Reference Tables and Index.

Teaching outline. The teacher is again re­ minded of the suggestions previously made for teach­ ing similar chapters on other state groups. The treatment and questions of the text should be followed.

Special exercises. Individual or committee assignments may be made for study and report on the following topics: What facts relating to this group of states are given in Reference Tables IV

Oregon. Prepare a general chart of Canada

18 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

Assemble pictures of Canadian life. Find out what North America, pp. 690-739; Hillyer: A Child’s

TEACHING OUTLINES

19

you can about the Hudson Bay Company and the fur trade. Why are Iceland and Greenland so different? Why should we feel friendly and neigh­ borly toward Canada? Write a simple story telling why you would or would not like to live in Canada.

Our Island Possessions

The Coconut Grower

Materials. Text, Secs. 244-247; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 26, 172, 173, 174 and 175.

Geography of the World, pp. 126-133.

General View of the Island Possessions of the United States

Materials. Text, Secs. 256-261; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 172-183 and 26.

Teaching Outline.—In teaching this chapter use the same plan of procedure outlined for similar lessons on the state groups. Discuss the topics pre­ sented in the text. Expect the questions to be

Washington, D. C., for a descriptive phamphlet of Climbing to the Coffee Plantation
the various countries. Steamship companies and Suggestions.—What is the most common break­

industrial companies doing business in South
America are usually ready to send bulletins or fast drink in our land? Trace your breakfast coffee

printed matter on travel or the products in which back to the point of production in Brazil or Colom­ they are interested. The National Geographic bia. Describe in detail your imaginary journey up

Teaching outline.—Who has seen a coconut? answered. Use the maps on pp. 26, 37, 173 and 180.

There are many interesting ways in which South
America can be taught. The text may be followed, sail back to Rio de Janeiro. Examine Fig. 40.

Can you bring one to class? What does Fig. 250 tell
you? Study the text and tell the story of Emilio
and his family. Compare the trading of Emilio
with that of Otelne, the Indian. (See p. 7.) Com­ possessions of the United States and find out how pare the Chinese store with the Canadian trading

post. What does Emilio do with his fifty dollars?
Trace several articles back to their point of origin
in the United States. Does your state produce or one of our island possessions, find out as much as manufacture any of the articles mentioned in possible about it, make a chart or exhibit of pictures Sec. 246? and other materials. Reports may be made to the

the problem: How does South America contribute

Special exercises.—Refer to your history text class as if each had just returned from a trip to the and find out how the United States came into pos­ island reported upon. Summarize the advantages

outlines that follow will conform to it quite coffee.) closely.

session of the Philippine Islands. What other products besides copra do we get from the Philip­ pines? Compare the living conditions of Emilio and Otelne. What makes them so different? Write to the Bureau of Agriculture at Manila for informa­ tion about the products of the Philippine Islands.

of possessing these islands. Supplementary reading.—Clark:

Geography, pp. 116-119.

General View of South America

Collect as many pictures Supplementary reading.—Wade: Our Little

The Southern Countries of North America

General View

Materials.—Text, Secs. 262-267; maps and pic­ tures, pp. 184-191.

Prepare a products chart. as you can.

Philippine Cousin.
The Sugar Islands

Teaching Outline.—Suggestions
view” lessons previously given will apply here. Study the questions carefully.

Materials. Text, Secs. 248-255; maps and pic­ m Saskatchewan, the wheat farms in the Dakotas

tures, pp. 176-180; Fig. 51; Reference Tables. Teaching outline.—Name all the uses for sugar that you can. Do we consume a great deal in this country ? Yes, we use about four million tons. How much is this for each person? Where is so much

and Kansas, and the rice farms in Louisiana depend­ ent on Enrique, the Indian boy of Yucatan? Trace a bunch of bananas and a box of citrus fruit from Honduras to your grocery store, telling as much as you can of their production, shipping, and market­

sugar produced? Where do we produce sugar in ing. Why should the United States always be

this country? (See Secs. 127 and 172.) Let us now find out how “Uncle Sam fills his sugar bowl.” From this point on the text will answer this problem and give a description of the sugar islands.

Special exercises.—Write to the American Sugar Refining Company, New York, for printed matter describing the refining of sugar. See if you can find in the reference works in the library a statement telling the difference between “raw” and “refined”

sugar. There is a government tariff on all the sugar imported into this country. Can you find out why the government imposes this tax? How much sugar do we import? (See Reference Table X.) From what island does most of it come?

friendly with Mexico?
Special exercises.—Write to the United Fruit

Company, New York, for printed matter on tropical fruits. Find out all you can about the oil fields and gold and silver mining in Mexico. How did Cuba become an independent state? Collect pictures of these southern countries. List the products we receive from them and what we send in return.

Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith:

Commerce and Industry.

SOUTH AMERICA Introductory Suggestions

Additional material on South America may be Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: obtained by writing the Pan-American Union,

Special exercises.—Some of the following topics should be assigned for study and report by com­ mittees or by strong pupils: List the different island

using the questions and problems as given, with Why this triangular trade route? Read Sec. 178. such supplementary questions and special exercises What do these three seaport cities have for sale?

as the teacher may find time to introduce. The
lessons could be organized as a Tour of South What do they need? Coffee, cotton, and the manu­

America. The material could be developed around factures of England here combine their interests,

we came into possession of each. List the products and show how each helps to supply us with some­ thing we need. Each member of the class may take

and create one of the most interesting of the regular ocean trade routes.

for “general Problem—How are the McDonald wheat farm

Unit Studies in

It is well to note at this point that the use of the text, questions, maps and pictures, the problems, special exercises, and auxiliary activities have been frequently and clearly illustrated in the preceding lessons on the various state groups of the United States and the other countries of North America. It is thought that the repetition of so much detailed lesson planning is now unnecessary. In the out­ lines for the succeeding lessons it will be assumed that the teacher is adequately prepared to do much

of the detailed organizing of the material to be taught. The outlining will therefore be in more general terms.

The Northern Countries

The Rubber Gatherers

Suggestions.—Make a list of the ways in which rubber is used. It is needed for many purposes. We use more than all the rest of the world. What is this important material? From whence does it come? How is it produced? Assign the text and questions. Take a trip from New York to Manaos.

Special exercises.—Rubber in other parts of the world. Why is the Amazon valley unable to supply us with sufficient rubber? Prepare a chart or book­ let that tells the story of rubber. Compare the physical features and climate of the Amazon and Mississippi valleys. What other products come from Brazil?

Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: Commerce and Industry. (See chapters on The Caribbean Lands and Brazil.)

Suggestions.—Make a comparison of North and South America as stated in question 1. With some help from the teacher the pupils may find the solu­ tion of this problem: Though South America was discovered and settled by Europeans before North America yet it has not progressed nearly so rapidly. Why? Compare the two continents with respect to population, cities, railroads, factories, etc.

The Eastern Countries

General View

Suggestions.—Why has Brazil so few people when it is such a large country? Why do most of the people five in the southern part of the country? Why is Brazil becoming such a great cattle country? Compare Argentina and Kansas. What reasons can you give for believing that the packing of meat will grow to be a great industry. Why are the Plata countries the most prosperous and progressive of the South American countries? Why is Argentina sometimes called the United States of South America?

General View of the Northern Countries of South America

Suggestions.—Why do most of the people of this region live back in the mountains away from the seacoast? Why is the Orinoco Valley a treeless, grassy plain? Why is cattle raising the only indus­ try? From a study of Figs. 279, 284, and 293 suggest reasons why the Guiana colonies are not progressive. What do Figs. 279, 280, 284, 291, 293, and 295 tell you about this region?

Magazine, the Americas, the South American, and the Pan-American Union Bulletins are publications which provide excellent material and pictures on South America.

the Magdalena River to and from the coffee plan­ tation.

Special exercises.—Steamships sail with coffee from Rio de Janeiro to New Orleans, load with raw cotton, and sail thence to Liverpool. There they load with many kinds of manufactured goods, and

to our needs and pleasure, and help to make the

— McMurry: Type the countries of South America? As the first of Man, p. 61; J. Russell Smith: Industrial and

Supplementary reading.
these three plans is more likely to be used, the Commercial Geography. (See Index references to

United States a greater country, and how in turn
do we contribute to the welfare and prosperity of Study, Coffee Plantation; Merrill: Industries of

20

TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES 21

The Western Countries

The Nitrate Workers

Suggestions—Tell the story of the Indian boy whose father works in the nitrate plant at Salar, Chile. Study Fig. 293. Why is this region dry? Contrast the wet and dry lands. Of what service is nitrate to the farmer? to our factories? How has the Panama Canal helped the nitrate business? Compare the climate of Chile with that of the coast line of North America from Lower California to Alaska.

The Andean Countries

lesser number of countries and subjects and teach them well than to attempt the brief study of numer­ ous small topics. England and France should, be fully taught because of their relation to America, their foreign trade and prominence in world affairs.

The difficulty of securing outside materials should be anticipated by appointing in advance individuals or committees to collect pictures, specimens, books, newspapers, and other printed matter. For exam­ ple, a pupil could be designated to clip from,the daily papers and magazines interesting articles about Europe; to another, the collecting of pictures on shipbuilding; to a third, pictures of European costumes; to a fourth, pictures of homes and so on. Such materials will frequently’ not only give a good starting point but may be the basis for a splendid lesson. Newspaper clippings must be culled and

The Ships and Shipbuilding of Europe

Suggestions—Where do we build ships in the United States? Read and tell the story of Mary McGregor whose father is a shipbuilder at Glasgow. Why is shipbuilding so necessary for Great Britain? Why does Europe need so many ships? Oceans were once considered barriers; now they are our greatest highways for trade and travel. Can you

of France? Find out as many interesting things about Paris as you can.

Holland and Germany

Suggestions.—Why is Holland called the “dairy farm” of Great Britain? Why is this country called The Netherlands? Why is the soil fertile? Why do you think so many canals are used? The making of a windmill, or the construction of a Holland scene, are means of expression which chil­ dren enjoy. The story of “Hans Brinker and the Silver Skates” is a delightful book to read at this time.

Suggestions—Recall that a little Philippine man,
Emilio, gave us coconut. To-day we will learn that
an Indian boy in Ecuador makes it possible for us
to have chocolate candy and many other things
made partly of chocolate. List all the things you classified with the guidance of the teacher.. Make can think of that are made from the cacao beans. frequent use of the school readers, histories, the

Suggestions.—Problem: What natural advan­
tages have helped to make Great Britain a great
nation? The topics in the text solve the question.
Of what value are the games and outdoor pleasures?
What is notable about Scotland? Wales? Ireland? Why is the Rhine valley like New England? What

We have been taught that the Indians were school library, and the art museum. The London savages. Was this true of the ancient Andean and North Eastern Railway of England, 311

Indians? What have the white people of Europe Fifth Avenue, New York, The French Steamship and America done for Peru and Bolivia? Compare. Line, 211 S. Fifteenth Street, Philadelphia, and

How have the dominions and colonies helped
Great Britain to become the greatest commercial is sent to the outside world and what is purchased

Why do the people of Chile call themselves the Yankees of South America? Compare Chile with the Pacific coast of North America.

Special exercises.—Why'wouldtheancientpeople of Andean countries have been better off without so much gold and silver? Why is the Irish potato wrongly named? Why' would you expect the low­ lands of Ecuador to be unhealthful? Write the Walter Baker Company, Dorchester, Massachusetts, and the Hershey Chocolate Company, Hershey, Pennsylvania, for booklets or printed matter telling about the cacao beans and the making of chocolate. What do travelers mean when they say it rains thirteen months out of the year in Southern Chile? Compare Figs. 295 and 133; why are there so few railroads in Chile? in South America?

The’American Express Company, 65 Broadway, New York, will send on request descriptive travel literature on Europe.

return?
Special exercises.—The British Empire is now

coming to be known as the British Commonwealth.

The Scandinavian Countries

Suggestions.—Suggest a reason why the people of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are so much alike. What lessons can we learn from the Danish farmer? Why has the Scandinavian peninsula so sparse a population? Why have these countries never been

The following books will be found of value for reference purposes and for supplementary reading: Jordan and Cather: High Lights of Geography— Europe. Carroll: Around the World; Andrew: Seven Little Sisters; Shaw: Big People and Little a review of the minimum essentials of the United People of Other Lands; Mulet: Sunshine Lands

the Louisiana colony and purchase; and the World War.

send to other lands and what do they receive in return?

General Review of South America

Special exercises.—ReadortellthestoryofJoan
of Arc to the children. Study pictures of peasant
life, as, The Gleaners; The Angelus. Pupils may called “The Playground” of Europe? Why will bring in for study and discussion postcards or
souvenirs brought from France by older brothers or
fathers during the World War. Make a picture
chart on the peasant life. On the products and

Suggestions.—Follow the same plan outlined for

The Swiss Mountain People

States. (See p. 17.) Prepare carefully all the ofEurope. questions on p. 217 of the text.

Introductory Lesson

Franz and his grandfather live in a different stone hut or cottage each month in the summer? . How do the Swiss manufacture when they have no coal or petroleum for fuel? How is it that this little country has always maintained her independence in the face of many foes?

Special exercises.—Collect pictures showing the natural beauty of the land and telling of the quaint life of the people. What do we import from Switzer­ land? Write an exercise telling the story of Franz. What notable rivers have their sources in the Alps

Supplementary reading.—J. Russell Smith: Commerce and Industry. (See chapters referring to South America.)

EUROPE Introductory Suggestions

Europe is a complex continent. The great variety of races, customs, languages, industries, and physical features makes it seem like a Chinese puzzle to the average child. It is not possible to teach all the interesting geographic materials of Europe in this grade or even in the elementary school. It is too vast and complex. It is, therefore, far better, as most courses of study do, to place emphasis upon a

Relations of Europe to North America

Suggestions.—-How are we related to the peoples of Europe? With the help of the teacher, the pupils should refer to their histories and world map and tell what European peoples first settled our Atlantic Coast, Mexico, Louisiana, Canada, and New York? Why is England called the “Mother Country”? From what country in Europe did your people come? Locate Europe on the globe and on the map of the world. Compare with North America with respect to location, size, population, number of countries, coast line, ocean trade routes, etc. (See Reference Tables for data on size and population.)

manufactures. from France.

Make a list of the things we import

France and Belgium

Continue making charts.
to subject or country. Simple ready map sketching and the writing of paragraphs on interesting topics should be frequent exercises. Each pupil may be expected to keep a list of important places as the work progresses, or one list.may be kept by a com­ mittee and used by the entire class when review time comes around. The “what, where, and why” contest, described in the Introduction would be a popular way to make use of such lists.

Why is it necessary

Compare the Lapps and the Eskimos.
service is the reindeer? Why has our Government • Suggestions.—Recall what has been previously introduced reindeer into Alaska? How do the

Classify them according

Can you tell why? ment with our own.

tell why? How do they benefit the land? Figs. 31, 40, and 327.

The United Kingdom

Study

and manufacturing nation in the world? What do in return? we send to England and what do we receive in

Compare the laws and govern­
England is a “free trade” country; that is, at war, and have never been conquered? What is

imports are not taxed, as a rule. Can you show that this is a wise commercial policy?

the effect of the Gulf Stream? to go to the sea for a living?

Growing Sugar Beets and Rabbits in France

studied about the production of beet and cane sugar.
Read and tell the story of Jean Ribot, the farm, the
rabbits, village life and the sugar harvest. What
great historical events have made us very close that Columbus was the first European to reach friends of France? Look up the story of LaFayette; America? What do the Scandinavian countries

Suggestions..—Why can France, although small
and densely populated, feed her own people? What
does France buy from other countries and what
does she sell in return? What are some of the lessons
we could learn from the French people? Why is
Belgium the “workshop” of Europe? How does it
support such a dense population? How does
northern France and Belgium differ from the rest | animals are to be found in the Alps Mountains?

How did Germany become a republic? How has education helped Germany? What conditions and influences have made Germany a great commercial andmanufacturingnation? ComparewithEngland?

Finns make their living?
Special exercises.—Tell the class about some of

the early sea voyages of the Norsemen. Is it certain

Suggestions.—Problems: Why is Switzerland

What is a glacier and what does it do?

Mountains?
Suggestions.—Can you tell why so few wild

Switzerland and Austria

Of what

22 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES 23 interest about the Caspian Sea? What are the produce a few. The Overseas Settlement office,

Why do the Swiss have three languages? What tells you that there is a good government? Why do you suppose the League of Nations was located at Geneva? An interesting picture of Swiss life may be found in Mark Twain’s “A Tramp Abroad.”

Compare Austria with Switzerland. Why do the people of Austria find it more difficult to make a living now than before the World War? Locate the cities of Salzburg and Vienna and tell why each is notable. Why was Austria-Hungary divided between seven countries after the World War?

The Italian Mountain People

Suggestions.—Read and tell the story of Toni, the village, the mountain gardens, and the chestnut harvest. Where are other chestnut regions located? Compare the value of the chestnut tree to the Italian farmer with the corn plant to the American farmer. What section of the United States could be made more valuable by lessons learned from the Italian farmer? Why are Italian farmers who come to America so successful?

A project in which the children would take great interest is the building of a Swiss scene on one side of the Alps showing the mountains, cottages, a Swiss chalet, a herd of goats, and a waterfall, while on the other side is represented an Italian village and farm scene.

Italy

Suggestions.—In what ways has the volcano helped and hindered the Italians? What does the city of Pompeii tell us of ancient Rome? For what are Rome and Florence noted? Compare the sur­ face of Italy with that of England and France. Why are nearly three-fourths of the people of this mountainous country farmers? What do the farmers produce? What is the Italian Riviera? Compare the Plains of Lombardy with those of our North Central States. Why has Italy less manu­ facturing than France or Switzerland? Why are her cities not so large as those of England or the United States? Why have so many Italians come to this country?

Special exercises.—Why were the ancient Romans able to rule all the countries around the Mediterranean Sea? If there is an art gallery in your city do not fail to have the class visit it. The director will help the pupils in an appreciation lesson on art productions from Italy and other European countries.

Spain and Portugal

Suggestions.—Why are Spain and Portugal such poor countries? What of the climate, surface, principal crops and mineral resources? Why has greater development not taken place? Why so few railroads? In what part of the United States could

we grow the cork oak tree? What is sent to England and what is purchased in return? What kind of government has Spain? Portugal?

Special exercises.—Why is Spain an interesting country to Americans? By reference to your his­ tories find that Spain was once a powerful nation engaged in foreign commerce and great explorations. Read the stories of Isabella, Columbus, the Moors and Granada. What discoveries and settlements were made in the New World? What colonies in North and South America did she once own? What should Spain and Portugal do to become prosperous and wealthy?

The Balkan Countries

Suggestions.—Why is there so little trade and travel? Why are there so many different people and languages? What conditions and circumstances keep the people poor?

Show that Greece differs greatly from the other - Balkan countries. Note specially its location and surface features. What are some of the advantages of having fine harbors? Long ago the Greeks were the most enlightened people of the world. What are some of the great gifts that have come to us from this civilization?

What is said of Constantinople (Istanbul)? Jugoslavia? Albania? Bulgaria?

Special exercises.—Why do so many people visit Greece? Perhaps you can go to an art museum and see some of the treasures that have come from Greece. Study a picture of an ancient Greek build­ ing and see if you can tell something of the style of architecture given to the world by the Greeks. What were the Olympian games? Tell the pupils something of the great contributions of language, literature, laws, art, and athletics made by the ancient Greeks to the civilized world.

Why have so many nations wanted Constan­

tundras? What are the mineral products? What caused the people to change the form of government? What does Russia export and import? Why is the country not so progressive and prosperous as the other countries of Northern Europe?

Special exercises.—Why did Russia, before the World War, buy so much agricultural machinery from the United States and other countries? Why have the Russians always wanted Constantinople? What changes do you think are necessary to make Russia a great and prosperous nation?

General Review of Europe

59 Victoria Street, London, will furnish information concerning the British Colonies of East Africa. The “Guide to Rhodesia” is distributed by Norton, Lilly & Company, 26 Beaver Street, New York.

During the study of the several lessons some atten­ tion should be given to the wild animals of Africa. AH pupils who have been to a large circus can readily tell about some of them. The class may make a list of the animals, and then each pupil may select one for special study and report. Such a study may well include a description of the animal, its home, food, care of young, value or danger to man. Pic­ tures, drawings, and possibly a model of the animal

tinople? countries?

How did the World War help the Balkan Why is Bulgaria the best of these states?

development of Europe? Why have Europeans explored and settled many parts of the world?

AFRICA

Introductory Suggestions
Read again the recommendations made at the beginning of the study of Europe and of South America. They apply equally well to Africa and

need not be repeated here.
Africa is a continent which fascinates children.

It is easy to teach, except that there may be some difficulty in satisfying the thirst for information concerning the Dark Continent and its mysteries.

The study may begin with the problem: “Why did Africa remain an almost unknown land for so long?” or, you may take the life of Livingstone or Stanley, and as the story is read to the class trace the routes of their journeys. The class could assist by finding other stories and facts to contribute to the study. Make a comparison of Africa as known to those men and as it is to-day. Excellent articles on Africa may be found in the popular magazines. For reference consult the Readers’ Guide in the library. See also World Folks, by J. Russell Smith.

Specimens of products can be collected, such as ivory, ostrich feathers, rubber, camel’s-hair cloth, bark cloth, coral, palm nuts, etc. Pictures are difficult to obtain, but diligent search will usually

getting to the interior by means of the rivers'; the plateau; the narrow, unhealthy coastal plain; the jungles; the animals and insects; the hostile natives. The fact that the savage and semicivilized natives produced so little to sell to the outside world and required so little in return was a great influence that hindered development. Have the pupils summarize the reasons why Africa remained the dark continent for so long.

Special exercises.—Tell the pupils something of the history of Northern Africa, Egypt and the Nile; Commodore Decatur and the Barbary pirates. Why was North Africa better known than other sections? What influence caused the Europeans to begin to grab land and to make settlements in Africa? Why are there only two fully independent countries? What is the government of South Africa? Compare it with Canada. Compare the three big lakes in East Central Africa with our Great Lakes. Explain why they will never be as valuable to Africa as the Great Lakes have been

The New Countries of Central Europe

Suggestions.-—Why was Poland made a free and independent state after the World War? What kind of people are Czechs and Slovaks and where is their land? Where is the “highroad” of Hungary and Rumania? What do these countries send out and what do they purchase in return? What do these countries need to do to become more pros­ perous?

European Russia

Suggestions.—Compare and contrast Russia with the United States. Name the crops grown. Locate the large cities. What four seas touch Russia? Trace each of the large rivers from source to mouth. Of what great service are they? What is of special

to North America. North America.

Make other comparisons with

Suggestions.—It is suggested that the teacher could be used. The children will enjoy work of refer to what has been previously said on the teach­ this kind.
ing of general and review lessons. Supplementary reading.—Hoefler, Paul L.:

Problems.—Why has Europe made such a good Africa Speaks; Pratt-Chadwick and Lamprey:

home for so many powerful nations? Why is there
so much wealth? Why are there so many different
peoples and languages? Why is it the greatest
country for shipping and trade? How do you
account for the fact that the people of northern
countries are more prosperous and wealthier than around the problem, Why did Africa remain an those living in the southern countries? What almost unknown land for so long? The following would be the effect if all communication were cut topics will aid in solving the question: The climate; off between Europe and North America? To what deserts of the north and south; disadvantages of extent have the ocean trade routes influenced the

The Alo Man.

The Continent of Africa

Suggestions by Chapters

Suggestions.—This chapter may be developed

The People of the Desert’s Edge

Suggestions.—This is a splendid story lesson and should be so taught. The teacher may read one or two sections to arouse interest and then ask the pupils if they would enjoy reading the entire story so as to learn how Hakim and his family live on the edge of the great Sahara Desert in Africa. The

24 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHING OUTLINES

reproduction of the story should develop a number of interesting questions.

how are they influenced by the climate? Compare this region with our Pacific Coast and Plateau States. In doing this use the physical, rainfall and vegeta­ tion maps of the two regions. Also note the pic­ tures. What is said of the mining?

Special exercises.—Measure off an acre of ground to find out just how large Ito’s tiny farm is. How large is your farm? Of what material is your fishing rod? Why can the bamboo in Japan be used for the framework of houses? It is used for making a variety of other things. Can you make a list of them? Trace the route of a bale of silk from Tokyo to Paterson, New Jersey. Write a description of the production of silk. Collect samples of silk and

Special exercises.—Why is the camel the most
valuable possession of the Bedouin? What is a
caravan? W’hat kind of government do these people
have? Collect pictures describing the life of the
Bedouin people. Write descriptions of Hakim’s each is of importance to the country which owns it.

school and of Suleima’s school.

The Countries of Northern Africa

Suggestions.—Why is it necessary to cross the

desert? What are the dangers? Railroads are

now being built out into the deserts. What are

some of the difficulties to be encountered? What

advantages will follow? Why is an oasis like an
island? What trade goes on between the nomad has been previously given for the United States,

mount them on a large cardboard. of the silk industry.

Japan

Secure pictures

and the oasis dweller?
Why is Egypt called “the gift of the Nile”?

This problem will show how the Nile made Egypt and how dependent the people are upon this great river. It will organize many geographic facts. The map should be used freely. Recall the Bible stories of Egypt. W&s it once a great and powerful country? How is farming carried on without rain? Why did the ancient people worship the Nile? Why did the Romans call it their granary? What is said of Egypt to-day?

South America and Europe.

ASIA

Introductory Suggestions
Read the introductory statements for South America, Europe, and Africa which are given in the

preceding pages of this Manual.
Materials on Asia may be obtained from the

following sources:
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Railway Exchange, Chi­

cago, or 409 Caiman Building, Seattle. Pacific Special exercises.—What have the British done Mail Steamship Company, San Francisco; China

to help the Egyptians? Why do travelers visit and Japan, Canadian Pacific Ocean Service Ltd., this country? Collect pictures of Egyptian scenes. Chicago; Dutch East Indies, National Foreign

Construct on the sand table or in the yard illustra­ tions of the Nile valley—the pyramids, the sphinx, obelisks, etc. Make a list of the products.

Compare the Nile and Mississippi valleys. Great levees are built on the lower Mississippi to keep out

Trade Council, India House, Hanover Square, New York; Asia, Asia Publishing Company, 627 Lex­ ington Ave., New York; Japan, Japan Society, 165 Broadway, New York; silk, Belding Bros. & Com­ pany, 201 W. Monroe Street, Chicago; tea and spices, Irwin, Harrisons & Crosfield, Inc., 90 Wall Street, New York.

The study of this great continent may be intro­ duced through the following problems:

What parts of Asia are favorable for people to live in and to prosper? Why? Find the solution through a study of Figs. 440, 441, 454, 456 and 460. Helpful questions are: Locate regions where surface and climatic conditions are favorable and unfavor­

Why are they not built on the Central Africa and Its People

Suggestions.—The story of Bong and Rita, the black boy and girl, should be read by the pupils as a story and reproduced in class. This story and the questions of the text should result in an excellent lesson.

the flood waters. Nile?

Special exercises.—For what products do the able. Is the Indian Ocean more or less valuable

Suggestions.—China is the oldest civilized nation, yet to-day we consider it backward and unprogres­ sive. Why? The following questions will aid in the study of this problem: W’hy did the Chinese come to a certain way of doing everything? What is said in the text to prove that China was civilized long before the time of Christ? Ocean trade and travel are comparatively recent. Show that without ocean communication China is cut off from the balance of the world by physical barriers. How would this isolation cause unprogressiveness? Marco Polo’s “Travels in China” may be used here if obtainable. Why was the Great Wall built?

United States and England depend upon the people
of Central Africa? What is sent to them in return?
Read selections from the life of Livingstone, and
Stanley’s “In Darkest Africa.” Trace Stanley’s Geography of the World; Mitchell: Paz and Pablo. journey on the map. Why is the Congo River

called the Amazon of Africa. If you have seen a big circus tell what animals in the menagerie came from this part of Africa.

South Africa and the African Istands

The Silk Growers

Suggestions.—Of what materials do we make our clothes? We have already learned about cotton, wool, and linen. Would you now like to find out where silk is produced and how it is made? Let us read the story of Shunzo Ito and his family. After

Suggestions.—Why is South Africa called “White
Man’s Africa?” Why is it like the Dominion of study the pupils should reproduce the story. A

Canada? What are the agricultural industries and number of thought questions will arise.

Locate each island or island group and tell why

Special exercises.—Why is the ostrich such a valuable bird? Make a list of the exports and imports of Cape Town and Delagoa Bay. Who are

the Boers?

From what country did they come?

General View

Suggestions.—The teacher would do well to follow the same plan for summarizing and reviewing that

Suggestions.—Tell the class about the visit of Commodore Perry to Japan. What kind of people did he find? What evidence can you cite to show that the Japanese are a civilized, progressive and cultured people? What grographic conditions are favorable? Compare the location with that of England. How do so many people live in such a poor little country? How does the sea help? How has manufacturing and trade helped to make the country powerful?

Special exercises.—What neighboring countries does Japan rule? Of what special advantage is Shantung? Korea? Dairen in China? Why has shipping and foreign commerce developed? If you believe Japan is a great nation, tell why. W’hat kind of government does Japan have? religion?

The Chinese Tea Grower

Suggestions.—Do you drink tea? We can find out where our tea is grown, learn a great deal about Li Yu and his family as it is given in our text. The reproduction of the story and the questions that arise should constitute the principal part of the lesson.

Special exercises.—W’hat has tea drinking to do with the health of the Chinese people? Why does not Li Yu receive as good a price for his tea as for­ merly? Why do we not raise tea? Compare the lower Yangtse valley with our southern Mississippi

than the Arctic? the Pacific? Is the valley of the Ganges more favorable than that of the Yenesei?

Supplementary reading.—Hillyer: A Child’s

valley.

What do we send China in exchange for tea?

China

25

Compare the great plain with the lower Mississippi valley. What are the leading products? Compare the raising of rice with our own production in Louisi­ ana. What is said of trade and manufacturing? What change has been made in the government? Compare the Chinese Republic and the United States with respect to size and population.

Special exercises.—Name and discuss the evi­ dences that China, after many centuries without change, is to-day rapidly adopting the progressive civilization of the United States and other nations of the Western World.

Can you account for the famines that sometimes occur in China? What changes would prevent them? What will happen when the coal and iron and other resources are used as fully as we have developed similar resources in the United States?

Why is there such a friendly feeling for the Ameri­ can people? Tell the class what was done with the indemnity money following the Boxer trouble. The other nations took all they could get while the United States returned it to the Chinese to be used as an endowment fund for educating Chinese boys and girls in this country.

Locate several of the important cities and tell why each is notable. Name and locate the four territories. Why are they not so advanced as China proper?

Asiatic Russia

Suggestions.—Why has Asiatic Russia been the last of the great plains regions to be developed? How will its settlement add to the food supply of the world? Compare this region with the northern part of North America. What are the distinguishing features of each of the four regions described in Secs. 469-472? Give reasons for your statements. Compare the life, industries, trade, education, and pleasures of the Kirghiz with those of the city or neighborhood in which you live.

Southwestern Asia

Suggestions.—Why are we so deeply interested in this region? Recall the Bible stories which tell of the power and glory of these ancient lands. Why did they once flow “with milk and honey” and later decline? What changes have come about as a result of the World War? Will British enterprise cause the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates to become green again with crops, and be the home of many people? Why will Arabia never become a great, prosperous country? Of what importance to commerce is the Suez Canal?

India

Suggestions.—Why is Ceylon a valuable posses­ sion of Great Britain? What do the products tell you of the climate? Why has India such a variety

26 TEACHERS’ MANUAL FOR HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, BOOK ONE

TEACHERS’ MEMORANDA

of regions and people? What climatic and surface
conditions make it possible to support so many
millions of people? What exchange of products
takes place between England and India? What is
Great Britain doing to develop the country? Com­
pare the Ganges and Indus valleys. Famines were
once frequent but now seldom occur. Why? How large is Australia as compared with the United

does the caste system hinder progress?
Special exercises.—Collect pictures and clippings

on the animals. Prepare a picture chart of the products. Write a short story of an imaginary trip to Ceylon or to the Indus Valley.

Over the Roof of the World

Suggestions.—A very satisfactory treatment of this chapter is to assign it for study and have it reproduced as a descriptive journey.

Special exercises.—Do you see any advantages or disadvantages of the great mountain wall to India? Why has Tibet remained an unknown country until recently? What would be the advantages of a railroad from the coast into the province of Chengtu ?

The Countries of Southeastern Asia

Suggestions.—Depend largely on the text and the questions there given for this lesson. The fol­ lowing questions will help develop the material of the text: Why are these countries of southeastern Asia considered among the most valuable possessions of the European nations? What influence did trade and commerce with this part of Asia and the East Indian islands have on the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492?

General View of Asia

Suggestions.- -Itissuggestedthattheteacher use the same general plan for reviewing the continents that has been clearly outlined in previous lessons.

AUSTRALIA AND THE PACIFIC ISLANDS

Suggestions.—Examine Figs. 488, 490, 494, 496, and 497. Why do most of the people live on the eastern and southeastern coasts of Australia? What agricultural products would you expect in both of these countries in view of the climate and the surface features? What European people settled these lands? Compare the natives of the two. What is said of the history and government? Compare with the history and government of the United States, Canada, and South America. What exchange of products takes place with England? with the

United States?

States? Compare the size of New Zealand with Pennsylvania. How do these countries compare with the United States and England in trade, indus­ trial prosperity, education and general enlighten­ ment?

Why is the Pacific Ocean not used as much for commerce as the Atlantic? Why do we know so little about many of the islands of the Pacific? What are cannibals?

REFERENCES FOR TEACHERS

No attempt is made to cover the whole field of geography by the books listed below. These books are good samples of the subject. If they interest you, you will naturally go further into the field. They form an excellent nucleus for a teach­ ers’ library in geography.

Shaler, Nathaniel S. Sea and Land.
This book, now nearly 40 years old and a bit

old-fashioned in appearance, is a scientific dis­ cussion of physical geography—the forces of nature—in the style of a popular magazine article.

Brooks, Charles F. Why the Weather.
This book acquaints us with the air by an

author who has studied the weather all his life.

Huntington, Ellsworth. The "Human Habitat.
This book gives a glimpse of economic geog­ raphy by one of the best-known American geog­

raphers.

King, F. H. Farmers of Forty Centuries.
This book is rich in detail of the economic geography of a dense population (China) long

on the land.

Smith, J. Russell. North America.
In this book the human-use regions rather

than the political divisions have been described.

Bowman, Isaiah. The New World.

This is the first real political geography of the world.

Have the pupils study and reproduce the general description of the Pacific Ocean and its islands as found in the text.

Special exercises.—Why is New Zealand better fitted to be a home for the English than is Australia? How do these two countries help England? How

TEACHERS’ MEMORANDA

TEACHERS’ MEMORANDA

TEACHERS’ MEMORANDA

A Complete Course in

GEOGRAPHY
By DR. J. RUSSELL SMITH

J, RUSSELL SMITH, Ph.D.

Professor of Economic Geography, Columbia University, is unusual among scientific men. He has the ability to keep scientifically sound and at the same time present a new point of view in a simple, lively, and interesting way. No other geographer on either side of the Atlantic has shown such power of literary adaptation. His college texts are standard from Harvard to Califor­

OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Home Folks Grade 3

We all live either in the country, the city, the village, or the town. By telling how some boys and girls live in these type places, Home Folks introduces our country and presents a new way to begin the study of geography. Home Folks is a book of visual education. It contains nearly 400 large clear photographs and drawings. List price, $1.16

World Folks Grade 4

Comprising a description of representative peoples in selective environments, World Folks, in delightful story form, tells how these peoples make a living, make a home, educate their children, make a neighborhood, and a government. As the stories develop, there is created an impression of life and living which discovers these peoples of other lands as fellow craftsmen with ourselves. Over 400 illustra­ tions. List price, $1.32

Human Geography

Written primarily to assist the pupil in understanding man in his relationship to the earth which is his home, Human Geography presents no facts without significance but rather develops a series of problems in cause and effect. Interest is the keynote, and the style is easy and natural.

His high school book is widely Dr. Smith’s series of elementary HUMAN GEOGRAPHY , has

nia.
used.
texts,
had and continues to have a phenome­ nal distribution. He has also written articleson geography not only for scien­ tific, geographic, and educational jour­ nals, but also for the readers of such magazines as the Atlantic Monthly, Harper’s, Century, as well as the Satur­ day Evening Post. Dr. Smith is fre­ quently referred to as the greatest geog­ rapher in America. His ability to teach and write merits him this great distinc­ tion. He recently received the Har­ mon Award, given each year for an “article of signal benefit in stimula­ ting constructive opinion.”

Book I. Peoples and Countries Fourth, fifth and sixth grades. Also available in two parts.

- -

$1.36

Book II. Countries, Regions, and Trade $1.80 Seventh and eighth grades.
State Supplements are available for

this book.

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY

Progressive Schools

Are Using These Dictionaries

0 All modern plans of instruction stress the importance of the proper use of reference books. Outstanding teachers’ colleges and demonstra­ tion schools now teach the use of the dictionary from the third grade on, and most of them use THE WINSTON SIMPLIFIED DICTIONARY. Pupils actually enjoy the regular use of this dictionary. There is an edition for every school need.

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Plain $2.64, with index $2.88

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9 Edited by William Dodge Lewis and Edgar A. Singer, Ph.D. Not an abridgment of any other dictionary but an en­ tirely new and original work, especially designed for the inter­ mediate grades. The Peabody Journal of Education called this “the first dictionary to pay attention to modern pedagogical principles.” 40,000 words, 800 illustrations, 8 colored plates. Printed from large, clear type and durably bound. $1.20

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9 Designed to meet the needs of very young pupils and to encourage the dictionary habit. Very simple definitions of 28,000 words. Fully illustrated and printed from exception­ ally clear, black-face type. Durably bound. $0.80

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/hat’s in the pumpkin?

JJlwse vorsns desorlbe ton things made from the letters m

"pumpkin”.

zi very young canine, a relative, too, A fastener convenient, a kind of shoe ** fur quite expensive and /hat means

You use it for fireworks, pucolor ze love, 1 very dark liquid, a wee little bite.

Jo., think it all over, you’ll get these all right.

;J,

i’tc -m

- 7fcoT

(©) Mstoiy»

SC. (Ij 3

(«■) «« the cf these tvo scisaces bsoomes Isos aa£ lest. (1} Think of,

Is J taxation
roguish ->a of oomcr&e ma labor

is J b&afcing me. currency

;X) z^uaints. us with the experience© of am in all Undo aad fe^es. (&; Vhere this experience is political ar has

>cxitl€i-1 effect® it is political »«i«fioe«
UJ ieiitiw l m Im u mosm th© facts am helps ts ifiterpret&te

thsB la a fhHaasfhlsal a^aaer it is «a al< U history

,

prsp-ensitiesa
(a) Therefore to uaderstaad & <oM deal of oolitlc^l

life w Ui<e into aecsuat the biolS^icel

aub-Btratua M all haasa nature and ^oitvity. Thv.re are .also eeaaeatlom between political seiease aad

psyohdlagy »

(d) Bxolagys
(1) Mm are bialat:ic&l beiaga with ©xiiat-l attributes sjid

&

■< ■ ■ -

■..•

i&; Has aea &at is detamlaed saBsashat ay their watd prasee£.cs-

11) pwrty feffilifetisna (2) leejiel&tive prseedars \^} ©leatari&J. saiap&i^a (4) $al&la svioisa

B Bb

(1) People control it in both cases.
(a) Keeping the management of affairs in their hands £&sjdtxx

(SwitzerlandJdirect democracy.
(b) Entrusting of power to persons chosen by the citizens

(US) representstive government.
(2) Disadvantages of the direct democracy—

(a) Uakes great demands on citizen*s time.
(b) Assumes that the ordinary citizen is qualified to decide

wisely on laws and policies.
(c) Delay inb/ringing the people together.
(d) Unfitness of the popular assembly to transact business

with order and juduodtty sober!ety.
(e) Impossibility of operating with large populations.

(3) Because of the above objections the principle of representative

i

I

I 1 B

Jl y

government arose.
la) Before this governments were either—

11} direct

(2) democratic

POL. SC. (HI) S

and the masses have no rijits.
(c) Any elective assemblieB exist by the sufferance of the

prince.
(d) Hie lavs do not always express the will of the people. (e) is the tool of the prince and not the protector of

the people.
(b) Democracy is representative government.

A
B jj It*s advantages:

B

Br B

B B

(1} It puts the work in the hands of people who give it their undivided attention

(2) Puts a check on impulsive mejunities
(3) Opens way tc develop© papular government in

any state regardless of population.

stribution of Governmental Powers.
(a) Mien you create/ a new State or the old is modified,the question

k

L ■ ■ F ’

, <

arises as to how the powers are to be distributed. This can be done

in several ways.
(1) State maybe divided into one or more sets of districts and to

each district equipped with the necessary machinery maybe assigned the exercise cf certain powers,

(a) This is territoral distribution
(2) The other division maybe in acco/rd with the nature of the

authority exercised.
(a) This is functional.

(3) The State government,county,city and town government of the U.S. is an illustration of the territoral distribution of power. The turning over of the government to these units is to relieve the central government of as much burden of detail as possible Communities should have control over their own local affaire in so far as they do not conflict with the affairs of othe ’ communities.

Two modes of territorial distribution*
(1) Vhat the /ureas shall be and also what their functions are

is written into the constitution.
(a) Distribution is mde by the political sovereign

and the resulting agents are all coordinated to

the central in/thet they derive their powers from it yfa/ and neither can encroach on the other

(h) On the other hand the constitution/ may create only a sirngle organization with full governmental
powers and it must provide for the territorial distribution as it sees fit.

Federal or Unitary Governments:
(1) If you follow the first plan you get a federal type of

government as ve have in the U.S.
(a) Distinction arises from the authority by which

the distribution is made
(2) The government Of France is unitary because here there is on/

single instrument that creates the government but does not go on to create the local government leaving this to the
authority at Paris, Local divisions abolish at will not so with our government.

Merits of the Federal System people (a) It affords a means of uniting into powerful commonwealths en/tirrely

diverse in character and institutions with out destroying

these things. people I^Ib} XXHinaosM Kurnishes a means of momentary equilibrium among

of widely different tendencies.
Kroells other forms of government,in that it combines National

Unity with local authority,
Secures uniformity of affairs of a general concern allowing for diversity of regulation in local affairs.
Power is distributed between a central government and a number of local governments,thus preventing the use of despotism. Because of local self government, interest in l^cal affairs is

stirnu: theirj

d and preserved as well us educating the people

means ofi experimentation in local government that

done

government

SC. (IV.i 2

f Federal System:
is comple^as many sets of officials as there are types of

Lrernment.
\1) This leads to-

(a) overlapping (b) confusion (c) waste

There is a lack of unity-
(1) Official* are equal so they will not take orders from one

another and are likely to be working at cross purposes. (a) e.g. divorce,marriage,labor laws etc.

(c) Federal plan is likely to prove very rigid.
(1) kssak Social and economic conditions change so fast that

sometimes it desirable, to be able to change the constitutions to meet these conditions,but where the ftmeiiding process must go thru both state and federal action (govt.) is slow.

(2) Unitary government could change quickly to meet these situations as in France where the amending power is confined to one body.

(d) A Federal type of government does not develop local self- government any more than a Unitery form.

P
IV. Tendencies away from pederalisms

k,

(a) Because of these defects the new govts, that have been created since 1909 have set up unitary forms of govt.

(b) There is a tendency now for the Federal govt, to be given greater power than the local governments hither thru,-

(1) Constitutional amendments
(2) Their interpretation of const. S3) Usage.

V. Division of powers functionally- (a) Legislative

(b) uSxecbtive /
(c) Judicial,were first mentioned by /-uristotle over 2000 years ago.

(d) Functions of these different divisions
(1) Legislature is to ascertain and express the will of the

state in the form of law.
(2) Judicial is to hear and decide dignities arising out of

the enforcement of these laws.
(5) Executive represents government as a whole and see^that

the lavs are enforced.

Reasons for functional distribution- fa) practical convenience

(b) to secure the beet public interest
(c) must be a check and balance on the Uarious groups.

.

9

.

s which they maybe amended 1 rganicLaw maybe amended may differ

(1) e.g. the form and machinery are surrendered by the people ot Parliament

(2) In France the constitutional and legis/lative
powers are in the same hands (senate and dynasties) there is a difference in the manner in which they can be exercised.

(3) In other cases the amending power belongs in the hands of the electorate, AM. Plan

.rious ways of classifying Governments
(a) How are we to determine the manner in which a government

shall be classified?
(1) We sometimes say a government is,-

(a) hereditary b elective

(c) presdental
(d) parliamentary
(e) unitary
(f) federal. But these do not fit so well because no

government is entirely one or the other,so another

method must be found.
(2) The basis of distinction then,is who exercises the

sovereign functions of government.

a Is it a king or prince?

b n " ’’ special priviledged class of citizens?

" the general body of the people or their representatives?

(b) Autocracies:
(1) Is the will of a prince or king,which is law (2) There are many types of these however--

a) Absolute--the will of one man.
b) Limited--by a body of rulers that maybe a

constitution.

1

n

Oligarchies!
(1) Exercise ofpowers by a small class of persons who have

it because of birth,wealth,or reputed superior wisdom

or a priestly function. (d) Democracies:

(1) All people are supposed to exercise a right in government—Roman Empire and Greek Republic

Autocratic and Popular Government Compared.- (a) Autocratic:

(1) In autocratic government there is a united will behind

flk it.

(Advantages)
(a) Simple structure

lb) Decisions prompt and unmistakable
(c) Ko doubt to distribution and location of

power
d) Continuity of personnel and policy
e) Directness in handling of public affairs f) Freedom of resource wnicn is advantageous

in war. ) Disadvantages:

(a$ Generally the government runs contrary to th^wT^ of the people

^_j(b) regards himself as the kate and

and Governments.
(a) The rules,custons,usages and regulations by which peopl^B

are governed we call Constitutions. (b) Constitutions are of many kinds

(1) Type:
a) Democr atic

b) Austrocratic !c) QIigarchie d) Autocratic

(2) For
(a) W ritten

(b) Unwritten
(3) As to the ease of amendment-

fa-^ Flexible--can be modified by the same authority that makes the laws and after the same form
of procedure.-Eng. Const.

m:

(b) Rigid—requires bringing into play special constitution making machinery and methods. Am. Const.

(4) On the basis of origin they maybe—
(a) Product of growth,then a long period of time-

)

'

as Eng. Cofast.
(b) Those granted by arulingprince--Prussian

instrument 1850
(c) Created by a deliberateact of sovereign

people--US Const.

I
|

j I

| t

|

Contents of Written Constitutions.
(a) It generally contains provisions on the following,-

1) A guarantee of individual liberties
2) Set up the structure of government machinery 3 J Limits on power of government
4) Composition of the electorate
5) Conditions under which the constitution maybe

II.

III. Modes of Constitutional Growth

attended
(a) Provisions maybe feriefkbroad or general or *'

detailed.
(b) The more desirab-' type of constitution however,is oni

that deals only .-.th fundamentals and is brief and clear. U.S. constitution is fairly satisfying in this respect and has served as a ’hpdel the world over.

(1) Usage:-

Ways and manner in shich people come to regard) the instrument whether written or not
e.g. the implied construction and strict construction of our constitution I

(2) Judic__ia_l interpretation—
(a) j&Esm Becomes necessary for the court^or some­

body that we are to accept as final authority) to say just how this clause shall be applied or as to it’s meaning under this or that
new circumstance.

(3) Statutory Elaboration-
fa) Legislative bodies will pass laws wetting

forth how the different provisions shall be applied.

rmal Amendments. wr:

,ic laws,except Italian

Final Examination

1st term, Summer Quarter, 1924

e English 16 A

1. Discuss the findings of laboratory research in connection with the reading process.

Jk2. a) What are the three chief objectives in the teaching of reading’
b) Show how reading in the intermediate grades differs from reading in

the primary grades.

3. Suggest four types of training for improving comprehension in silent reading.

4. a")' What factors condition speed in silent reading’
b) What may be considered a standard rate ofsilent reading at the close

of the sixth grade (reading material of average difficulty)’
c) By what processes can rate of silent reading be improved’

3$M!4£,

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OFFERING PRAYERS PREFACE

PRAYERS BEFORE COMMUNION

PRAYERS AFTER|(% BLESSING | LAST GOSPE

OUR LIFE and OUR MASS

4. 4. OUR PRAYER ASCENDS TO GOD

g)f|PRAYER |GLORY BE

LORD HAVE MERCY

iTROIT Q]MASS BEGINS

OUR OFFERINGS ASCEND TO GOD THROUGH JESUS

4- + GOD STRUTH DESCENDS TO US

EPISTLE GRADUAL

GOSPEL

+ + GOD S LOVE DESCENDS to US THROUGH JESUS

||0FFERINGTOT.<tFATHERp| [OFFERING PRAYERS+OURFATHE
| CONSECRATION * BREAKING O FBREAd]

OFFERING OF BREAD AND WINE 11 OFFERTORY VERSE

This diagram reveals the Mass as our guide for ■ daily life in our search for Truth and Love. At i Mass, Divine Truth enlightens our intellect; Divine

Love unites our wills to God and neighbor. Thus, rhe .Mass is. also the forerunner of future life in graven with its eternal Vision of Divine Truth

’ /rS'^ternal Union with Divine Love. Page 4

MY SUNDAY MISSAL 3

MASS CALENDAR

(Continued from Previous Page)

INDICATES PAGE for “PROPER” Of TODAY'S MASS

.J949 1950 I 195Q 1951 1951 1952 Nov.iPage May Paoe Nov. iPaae May! Page Nov. Pa<7£

1 321 7 189 2 325 3 197 11 115 11 189 2 325 14 193 5 300 6 201 18 119 18 193 6 296 18 197 12 115 13 205 25 304 22 197

13 300 21 201 19 119 20 210 Dec. Page 25 201 2030428.2052630427215 2 67June>Page

309 1 205 71 8 210 75 15 215 78 22 220 81 29 225 85

27 67 June Page Dec. Page June Page 8 Dec.Page 3 67 3 220 9 4 71■ 4 210 8 309 10 225 16 71 17 229 23 75 24 233 25

8 309 11 215 10 11 75 18 220 17 18 78 25 225 24 25 81 July iPage 25

78 July Page 30 81 237

Jan.Page, 9 233 1951 15 245 1 89 20 237

1S50 2 ’ 229 31 85 8 241 J<m.JPage 13 233

89’ 16 237 Jan. Page 22 249 23 241 .29 253

2 92

6 96 13 100 20 104 27 108

27 Aug.

3 245 10 249 15 313 17 253 24 257 31 261

2 92 30 245 1 89 Aug., Page

6 96 6 96 8 100 Aug. Page 7 100

15104624914104 221081325321123

12 127 Sep. Page 11 136 19 132r3 265 18 141

5 '257 12 261

15 313 19 265 26 269

2 273

29 112

112 10 123 17 127 21 132

28 127 Feb.Page? 20 257 Feb.Page 5 123 27 261 4 132

3

_26 _ 136 Mar.

5 141 12 145 19 150

10 269 25 145 17 273

9 277
162802136 23284914128277 30 288 16 145

_15 313.

24 277

4 150 Oct. Pane 23 150

Oct. Page 11 155 18 159 280 25 174

8 284 Apr, 15 288

30 155 5 280 12 284 19 288

222921178 174293178182 16 178 15 185 182 22 189 185132129193

317 13 174
20 178 Nov, Esas—.

2 9

159

23 30

2 325
4 112 185

MASS CALENDAR CONTINUED

1952__61 229

7 292
14 296
21 300 6 159 26 317_ 28

. 1 321 321 May.Page 2 296J

.P..WL.

7 265 14 269 21 273

Stone Horn Horn Lyman

Shepherd

Kallom Gray

Kibbe Zirbes Ketner

Anderson & Merton xmderson &

Merton Sutherland

Gates & VanAlstyne

Ritter and Lofland

Burr Finch Carter Wilson

Courtis Burgess Gray Hardy

Buckingham Guilfoile White

Some illustrative Silent Reading Lessons. Elem. Sch. Jour. Sept.,1920.

The Selection of Silent Reading Textbooks. Jour. Ed. Research. Oct.,1920.

A Constructive Program in Silent Reading. Jour. Ed. Research. May,1921.

The Teaching of Assimilative Reading in the Junior High School. Sch. Rev. Oct.,1920.

Some Silent Reading Lessons in Junior High School English. Sch. Rev., Mar.,1921.

Reproduction a Measure of Ability.Jour.Ed.Res.June,1920 Value of Informal Tests of Reading Achievement.

Jour. Ed, Research. Feb.,1920.
A Classroom Test of the Span of Recognition.

Elem. Sch. Jour. Sept. 1923.
Diagnostic Measurement as a Basis of procedure.

Elem. Sch. Jour. Mar.,1918.
Grouping by Standard Tests for Instructional

Purposes. Jour. Ed. Research Oct.,1920.
Remedial Work in Reading. Elem.Sch.Jour.,May,June,1920.

Remedial Work in Silent Reading. Elem. Sch. Jour. Jan.,1921.

Correcting School Disabilities in Reading. Elem. Sch. Jour. Sept.,1922.

General and Specific Effects of Training in Reading. T.C.Record. March,1924.

Relation between Reading Ability as Measured by Certain Standard Tests and the Ability Required in the Inter­ pretation of Printed Matter Involving Reason.
Elen. Sch. Jour. Mar.,1924.

Directed Study. Sch. Rev. Mar.,1919.
Junior High School Study Tests. Sch.Rev., Mar.,1920. Teaching a Study Habit. Sch. Rev. Nov.& Dec.,1921. Specific Teaching of Silent Reading.

Elem. Sch. Jour. Oct.,1921. Analysis of Reading Ability.

Jour, of Ed. Research. Nov.,1921. Classroom Grouping for Silent Reading Drill

Elem. Sch. Jour. Dec.,1921. Diagnostic and Remedial Steps in Reading.

Jour. Ed. Research. June,1921.
The Use of the Bulletin Board in Teaching Beginning

Reading. Elem.Sch.Jour. Jan.,1923. What Should Children Read in School?

Jour. Ed. Research. Jan.,Feb1924.
Using the Public Library in the Teaching of Reading.

Elem. Sch. Jour. Oct.,1921. Pleasure Reading.

Jour. Ed. Method. Oct.,1923.

Edition 1920

OTIS GROUP INTELLIGENCE SCALE Devised by Arthur S. Otis

ADVANCED EXAMINATION: FORM A

Examination Number................... Name.................................................................................................... (First name, initial, and last name)

Age last birthday.........................years. (Tell in figures)

School..................................

Birthday............................................................................. (Month, day)

Grade.............................. Date................................................ 19....

City.........................................................................................
(Do not write below this line.)

Remarks or Further Data

2 .............................................................................................................................

3 ............................................................................................................................. 4 .............................................................................................................................

5 ............................................................................................................................. 6 .............................................................................................................................

7 ............................................................................................................................. 8 .............................................................................................................................

9 ............................................................................................................................. 10............................................................................ ..............................................

1 1 ...........................................................................................................................

1 2 ...........................................................................................................................

13..................................... ................................. ................................................... . 4 ...........................................................................................................................

15...........................................................................................................................

Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago
Copyright, 1918, by Arthur S. Otis. Copyright, 1919, by World Book Company. Copyrig at in Great Britain. All rishis reserved. ogis : adv: A-14

(Month, day,

year)

Score

Test

1

2

3

4

5 6.

7 8

9

IO

Total Score

Norm IB PR

TEST 1

TEST 2

Following Directions

ABCDEFGHIJK.LM NOPQRSTUVW XYZ Sample problem : Write the fifth letter of the alphabet.........................................................( E

Begin here:

)

Samples:

up.......................(short, , hot.... (warm,

Opposites

down, -small, low, young) ice, dark, cold, fire)

i.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

12. 13.

14. 15.

16. 17.

18.

Do you understand that each letter is to be a capital made like printing and put in the parenthesis after the problem ? If so, write C in the parenthesis....................(

Will you remember not to ask any questions during the examination? If so, write Q ................................................................................................................................ ( $

Will you remember not to look toward the paper of any other pupil during the examination ? If so, write L ..........................................................................................(

Directions. Look at the first word on each line, think what word means exactly the opposite of it, find that word among the five words in parenthesis on that line and draw a line under it.

Will you remember not to turn over your booklet or any page of it at any time
unless you are told to ? If so, write B ; if not, write N .......................................... ( 4 ) 4

Write the letter O.................................................................................................................... (

Write the eighth letter of the alphabet...............................................................................(

Write the same letter that you were told to write in the fifth problem.....................(

Write the letter which follows the third letter of the alphabet......................................(

Write the letter which the letter L follows in the alphabet............................................(

If K comes after R in the alphabet, write K ; if not, write R ........................................ (

Suppose all the even numbered letters in the alphabet (that is, the 2d, 4th, 6th, etc.) were crossed out. The fifth letter left, not crossed out, would be what letter ?(

Write the letter which follows the letter which comes next after B in the alphabet.(

If E and F appear together in the alphabet, write E, unless T and Z also appear together in the alphabet, in which case write T instead...................................(

Write the letter which is the third letter to the right of the letter which is midway between K and O ....................................................... ( ..

) $

Suppose that the first and second letters of the alphabet were interchanged, also the third and fourth, the fifth and sixth, etc. Write the letter which would then
be the 14th letter in the alphabet................................................................................ ( /V] )

A certain letter is the second letter to the left of another letter. This other letter is the fifth letter to the right of Q. What is the ‘‘ certain letter ” first mentioned ?. . (

A certain letter is the fourth letter to the right of another letter. This other letter is midway between two other letters. One of these last two letters is next after E in the alphabet and the other is just before K in the alphabet. What is the “ certain letter ” first mentioned ? .................................................................................( /

If the letters in the word IF appear in the same order that they do in the alphabet and if the same is true of the letters in the word AN, write the letter Z. But if this is true of only one of these words, write the last letter of that word............( )

16

19. Find the letter which, in this sentence, appears a second time nearest the beginning. Write it, using a capital...........................................................................( T )

stationary, solid, sober)..................... 22

20.

Find the two letters in the word AFTER which have just as many letters between them in the alphabet as in the word. Write the one of these two letters that comes first in the alphabet........................................................................................................ ( |\ )

Score........ .........

) )

13 14

15 ‘ )

smaller, counterfeit,

contract, vanish, stay)....................... 12 adulterated, worthless, impure) 13

<J__) i ) 2

) 3

Begin here:
1. east.................... (north,

., ) O) 7

)£ ) 8 )9 K)10

3 )
) 12

9. beautiful.......... (crooked,
10. brave.................(painful,
11. pride.................(sorrow,
12. expand..............(burst,
13. genuine............ (coarse,
14. help...................(person, work, push, give, hinder^................................ 14 15. love...................(like, anger, hate, strange, lover).................................. 15 16. graceful.............(rough, homely, miserable, awkward, stout).............. 16 17. extravagant.... (miser, humble, economical, poor, wasteful)............. 17 18. cause.................(reason, because, origin, effect* why)........................... 18 19. abolish..............(alter, create, continue*. destroy, change).................. 19

) 17

18 19

20

20. loyal.................. (treacherous,
21. always...............(sometimes, often,
22. fickle................. (silly, constant,
23. therefore..........(since, why, may-be, there, cause)............... 23 24. however............(nevertheless, moreover, whether, even, never).... 24 25. unless................(and, therefore, however, also, if)................................. 25

Score. ...........................

11

6

equator)............................... 1 nothing).............................. 2 3. top.....................(bottom, side, cover, inside, feet)................................. 3 4. before................(late, now, soon, when, after)........................................ 4 5. difficult............ (hard, quick, soft, easy, common)................................ 5 6. friend................(brother, acquaintance, enemy, wife, stranger).... 6 7. succeed............(win, decline, fail, accede, try)...................................... 7

2. yes..................... (may-be,

west*, south, wrong, no,

pole, sure,

8. command..........(officer,

shout, order, handsome,

obey, old, ugly, stingy,

soldier)............................. 8 dirty).......................... 9 cowardly)........................ 10

fear, humility,

weak,
miserable, conceit, proud)............ 11

enemy,

thief, coward, jealous).............. 20 occasionally, seldom, never).... 21

the page.

If the sentence they would make is false, underline the word false.

TEST 3

TEST 4

Disarranged Sentences

Proverbs

Read each proverb, find the statement that explains it, and put the

men money for work.......................-............................................ (true
Samples: uphill rivers flow all.................................................................... (true false) ocean waves the has..................................................................... (true false)

Directions. The words on each Jine below make one sentence if put in order. If the sentence the words would make is true, underline the word true at the side of

Begin here:
i. eat

  1. float iron water on will............................................................. (true

  2. days there in are week seven a..........................................(true

  3. usually are of made tables wood..........................................(true

  4. has short very a a neck giraffe..........................................(true

  5. cream ice children like most....................................................(true

  6. milk bees flowers gather the from.......................................(true

  7. obtained sea sugar from is water......................................... (true

  8. fuel wood are coal and for burned....................................(true

  9. substances light lead gold and are very...........................(true

  10. rivers lakes and many desert has a .................................... (true

  11. moon earth the from feet twenty the is.......................(true

  12. hump camel has a his a back on....................................(t£U£— false) 18

cows.................................................................................... (true

grass

  1. sail ocean ships the on..............................................................(true

  2. sun morning the the in sets.................................................. (true

  3. trees birds nests the in build................................................(true. false) 4

  4. mountains live the in whales...................................................(true false) 5

  5. comes Christmas a but year once........................................(true. false) 6

  1. grow and apples ground oranges the in............................(true

  2. music fond people many are of............................................(true

  3. and eat good gold silver to are...........................................(true

  4. clouds rain sky from comes the the in............................(true

  5. mile a a a travel snail in can minute..........................(true

  6. automobile pocket man his keeps a his in...................(true

  7. vote persons twenty-one cannot under................................(true

Right...................Wrong..................... Score..........................

false). 19 false) 20 false}- 21 false) 22 false) 23 false) 24 false) 25

false)

Directions.
number of that statement in the parenthesis before the proverb.

false) i false) 2 false) 3

false) 7 false) 8 false) 9 false), 10 false) 11 false) 12 false) 13 false) 14 false)... 15 false) 16 false) 17

(fp) ( 7) ( 2 ) ( 7 ) ( 7) ( /) ( if) ( / t) ( / f) ( /)

(J?) ( ^ ) ( 1 ) () ( 3-) () (Prf ( //) ( f t) ( 1/)

Make hay while the sun shines.

Proverbs (Group 1) A drowning man will grasp at straws.

A stitch in time saves nine.
Rats desert a sinking ship.
In a calm sea every man is a pilot.
Destroy the lion while it is young.
He who would eat the kernel must crack the nut.
One swallow does not make a summer.
People who live in glass houses must not throw stones.
A mouse must not think to cast a shadow like an elephant.

Statements to Explain Proverbs in Group 1

1. It pays to attend to troubles before they get worse. 2. Leadership is easy when all goes well.
3. Make the best of your opportunities.
4. Those who would reap rewards must work for them. 5. It pays to do only one thing at a time.

6. Desperate people cling to absurd hopes.
7. False friends flee from us in disaster.
8. Weed out bad habits before they are too firmly established. 9. It is best to be silent when there is nothing to say.

10. Those who have faults should not criticize others. 11. Do not attempt the impossible.
12. A single sign is not convincing.

Proverbs (Group 2)

Every rose has its thorn.
A tree is known by its fruits.
All is not gold that glitters.
Where there is much smoke there must be some fire.
No wind can do him good who steers for no port.
Plant the crab tree where you will, it will not bear sweet apples. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
Too many cooks spoil the broth.
Meddle not with dirt — some of it will stick to you. Itisalongroadthathasnoturn.

Statements to Explain Proverbs in Group 2

  1. Environment will not change one’s nature.

  2. There is no happiness without its pain or sorrow.

  3. Appearances are often deceptive.

  4. It is better to be content with little than to gamble for more.

  5. One cannot have the same luck forever.

  6. No object can be attained without some sacrifice.

  7. Deeds show the man.

  8. We cannot help those who have no object in life.

  9. Suspicions usually have some basis.

10. Association with evil is sure to leave its effect. 11. Who undertakes too much accomplishes little. 12. Division of responsibility brings poor results.

3. If a man had $25 and spent $10, how much money did he have left?. . . (

4. At 6 cents each, how many pencils can be bought for 48 cents ? ...............(

5. A boy spent 20 cents and then earned 30 cents. How much more money did he have than at first ?................................................................ (

6. How far can a train go in 5 hours at the rate of 40 miles per hour?....(

7. How long will it take a glacier to move 1000 feet at the rate of 100 feet a year ?...............................................................................................................(

2

) dollars 3 ) pencils 4

Look at Fig. I.
What number in Fig. I is in the rectangle but not in the circle?.................................(-J? ) 1

10. If a man walks east from his home 7 blocks and then walks west 4 blocks, how far is he from his home ? .............................................................................(

11. Ifaboycanrunattherateof5feetin|ofasecond,howfarcanhe run in 10 seconds?......................................................................................... (

12. A ship has provisions enough to last a crew of 20 men 50 days. How long would they last a crew of 40 men ?................................................... (

13. One schoolroom has 7 rows of seats with 8 seats in each row, and another schoolroom has 6 rows of seats with 9 seats in each row. How many more seats does one room have than the other ?................................ (

14. If 10 boxes full of oranges weigh 500 pounds, and each box when empty weighs 5 pounds, what do all the oranges weigh?.....................(

15. Town X is 30 miles north of Town Y. Town Y is 15 miles north of Town Z. How far is Town Z from Town X ?........................................(

16. If 3I yards of cloth cost 70 cents, what will 2^ yards cost? .......................(

17. If a strip of cloth 36 inches long will shrink to 33 inches when washed, how long will a 48-inch strip be after shrinking ?................................. (

18. If Frank can ride a bicycle 300 feet while George runs 200 feet, how far can Frank ride while George runs 300 feet?............................................(

19. A hotel serves a mixture of 3 parts cream and 2 parts milk. How many pints of cream will it take to make 25 pints of the mixture?........(

20. Ifawire20incheslongistobecutsothatonepieceisfaslongasthe other piece, how long must the longest piece be ? ... (

Score

) blocks 10 feet 11 ) days 12

7. What is the largest number that is in the circle but not in the triangle nor in the rectangle ? .................................................................................................................................(

TEST 5

TEST 6

Arithmetic

Directions. Place the answer to each problem in the parenthesis after the problem. Do any figuring you wish on the margin of the page.

1. If a boy had 10 cents and earned 5 cents, how much money did he have
then ?..................................................................................................................( / S ) cents 1

2. At 4 cents each, how much will 12 pencils cost?.......................................... ( 4/ ? ) cents 2

2

10
11 12

Fig. II
What number is in the circle but not in the rectangle ?......................(

1 b ) years 7 S ) cents 8 9. If 2 pencils cost 5 cents, how many pencils can be bought for 50 cents ?( - ) pencils 9

4. What number in Fig. II is in the rectangle and in the triangle but not in the circle? ( (The remaining questions all refer to Fig. II.)

)

) ) ) )

8. If 2| yards of cloth cost 20 cents, what will 10 yards cost? ....................... (

) cents 5 i 0*) miles 6

1. 2. 3.

What number in Fig. I is in both the rectangle and the circle?...................................(

Look at Fig. II (at the right). What number is in the rectangle but not in the circle nor in the triangle ?.............................................................................................................(

) 2

3
) 4

) 5 6
7
8

9
) 10

) 11 ) 12

)13 )14 )15

) 16 ) 17

) 18 ) 19

) 20

12. >

8.

9.

Write the number that is in the lowest space that is in the triangle and in the circle but not in the rectangle........................................................................................................(

Find the geometrical figure (circle, triangle, or rectangle) that has the least number of spaces in it. Write that numberof spaces...................................................................(

We may say that space 12 is like space 3 because they are both in the circle and tri­ angle but not in the rectangle. Any space is like another which is in exactly the same geometrical figures. Write the number of the spacewhich is like space 6..............(

Write the number of the space which is like space 1.......................................................... ( How many other spaces are there like space 9?. i................................................................ (

) seats 13 ‘-/S $) pounds 14 ) miles 15

) cents 16 ( A ) inches 17 ) feet 18 ) pints 19 ) inches 20

10.
11. How many spaces are there each of which is in one and only one geometric figure ?. . ( 12. How many spaces are there each of which is in two and only two geometric figures?(

/;

18.

19. 20.

What is the greatest number of unique spaces which it is possible to make by over­ lapping a circle, triangle, and rectangle? (You may draw any figures you wish on the margin of this page)............................................................................................................. (

Also what is the least number of uniquespaces possible ? ................................................ (

2.

13.

5. 6.

What number is in the circle and in the rectangle and in the triangle?.......................(

What is the smallest number that is in the triangle but not in the circle nor in the rectangle ? .................................................................................................................................(

How many spaces are there each ofwhich is in all three geometric figures?..................(

14.
15.
16. There is no other space like space 5, so we may call space 5 unique (yuneek). Any

space is unique which has no other space like it. Examine spaces 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 in order until you find another unique space. Write its number......................(

17. How many unique spaces are there in Fig. II?................................................................... (

What is the greatest number ofspaces which it ispossible to make by overlapping a circle, triangle, and rectangle ?................

(

1 )

Score.............................

Samples :

animal, wide,

i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

hand: arm — foot:( ?)............................. leg, toe, finger, wrist, elbow........................ i

finger: hand — toe : ( ? ) ...............foot, clothes : man — fur : ( ? ) ..............coat, tall: short — fat: ( ? ) .....................man,

shoe, nail hair, skin, cloth

thin, boy, heavy

collar,

glove.........
........ hand,

violet........
........ bush,

chair...........
......... book,

cane, red,

table,

head, plant,

floor,

shoe,

bed, pencil,

house pansy

coat

peeling : banana — shell: ( ?)...................skin,
wool: sheep — feathers :(? )....................pillow,
coal: locomotive — ( ? ): automobile .... motorcycle, smoke,

ripe........................ 2 bed..................... 3

man: woman — brother:( ?)...................daughter, automobile: wagon — motorcycle: ( ?).. walking,

son.............. 5 bicycle .... 6 sentence . . 7 hand, sewing............ 8

hoe, rake,

fork............ 9

TEST 7

TEST 8

Analogies

Similarities Test

Directions. The first sample means : Finger is to hand as toe is to what?
word on each line that should go in the parenthesis in place of the question mark.

Begin here:

Directions. Find the way in which the first three things on a line are alike. Then look at the five other things on the same line and draw a line under the one that is most like the first three.

hospital: the sick — ( ? ): criminals........ doctor,
hat .‘head — thimble: ( ?)........................ finger,
captain: ship — mayor :(? ).....................state,
better: good—• worse :( ?)........................ very good, medium, bad,
grass : cattle — bread : ( ? ) ....................... butter, flour, milk, man, horses................... 11 large: object — loud : ( ? ).........................soft, small, heavy, weight, sound............... 12 king: kingdom — president: ( ? ).............vice president, senate, republic, queen, democrat 13 revolver: m an—■( ? ): bee........................ wings, honey, flying, wax, sting................. 14 egg: bird— (?): plant..............................seed, shell, leaf, root, feathers..................... 15 education:ignorance—-(?):poverty...laziness, school, wealth, charity, teacher. 16 circle : square — sphere:( ?)....................circumference, cube, round, corners, ball 17

habit,

memory,

wise, hate,

loyal, life,

rich.......... 14 hearing.... 15

point: line — line:( ?)..............................surface, pencil, sanitation: disease— ( ?): accident....... doctor, hospital,

ordinary : exceptional — many:(?).... all,
sunlight: darkness— ( ?): stillness......... quiet,
peninsula: land— (?): ocean..................river,
ellipse : circle— ( ?): square.................... cube,
violence : anger — ( ? ): love..................... caressing, hate, temper, evolution : revolution — crawl:(? )........baby, floor, stand, run,

Score.............................

Score.............................

knee, arm,

orange, rabbit,

egg, juice, bird, goat,

sister,

boy,

mother, train, prison,

horse, asylum, judge, needle,thread,

bush, soon,

milk, round,

council,

city, ship,

boss....................... 9 much worse, best 10

buggy,

11. day,
12. nut,
13. strong, bad, fast..................... 14. generous, kind, honest.......... 15. joy, anger, fear......................

night, said, shell, tree, and, man, strong, selfish,

joy,happy,

lay........................ 11 apple................. 12 come................. 13

wheels,

gasoline, horn 4

pencil,
hammer,
butter, rain, cold, cotton, water......... 10

dot, curve, solid................. 18

bandage, common, sound, dark, loud,

none, few,

lake, curve,

cape, gulf, oval, circle,

Underline the

cleanliness, care 19 more................... 20 moonlight.......... 21

water........................ 22 diamond.............. 23

hope, happiness 24 hands and knees 25

’ hat, Samples: rose, daisy,

desk, bed,

1. red, white, green................. 2. apple, peach, pear.............. 3. pan, bowl, basket............. 4. snake, cow, sparrow........... 5. ship, bicycle, carriage......... 6. cannon ball, wire, penny. .. 7. president, captain, general 8. book, teacher, newspaper. . 9. ax, knife, shears...................

10. ivory, snow, milk...................

blue................. 1 peel.................. 2 spoon........... 3 skin.................. 4 automobile, wheel, ocean, harness 5

say, gay........................ turnip, potato..............

Continue below in the same way. Sample:

paper, tree,

grass, plum,

soft, juice,

rose,
seed,
pail,
tree,
sail,
dollar bill, bone, string, pencil, key... 6 ship, army, king, republic, soldier.... 7

handle, doll,

knife,
pig, feather,

magazine, razor,

ink, card, box.......... 8

fork,

Once upon a . .

(i)

1 lion dog 2 garden forest 3 thorn rock 4

TEST 9

TEST 10

Narrative Completion

Memory

Directions. Read each question and if the right answer, according to the story, is yes, draw a line under the word yes. If the right answer is no, draw a line under the word no. But if you do not know the right answer, because the story didn’t say, draw a line under the words didn't say.

For each numbered blank in the story, choose the best word of the three

Directions.
in the list having the same number as the blank. Underline the word you choose. You may write these words in the blank spaces if you wish but only the underlining counts. Do nothing about the blanks that are not numbered.

The Reward of Kindness

. . there was a ............................... that lived in a ......... ................ One ........................... as he was roaming about, he stepped on

a ........................... . . and it stuck in his . .

Ingreatpainhe . . ..........................outofthe.....................

in search of some one who would.......... ............ out the

..........................

Underline words here

Samples:

Was the story about a king?......................................................... (yes Was the king’s daughter sixteen years old ?............................... (yes Was she ugly ?................................................................................... (yes

no didn’t say) no didn’t say) no didn’t say)

no didn’t say) 1

no didn’t say) 2 no didn’t say) 3 no didn’t say) 4 no didn’t say) 5 no didn’t say) 6

no didn’t say) 7 no didn’t say) 8 no didn’t say) 9 no didn’t say) 10 no didn’t say) 11 no didn’t say) 12

no didn’t say) 13 no didn’t say) 14 no didn’t say) 15 no didn’t say) ,16 no didn’t say) 17

no didn’t say) 18 no didn’t say) 19 no didn’t say) 20 no didn’t say) 21

no didn’t say) 22

no didn’t say) 23

no didn’t say) 24

At last he saw a .................................and went up to him
as if to say, “ . .. . ...................pull this . ........................ out
of my .................. .. ..” The................ .. .. . saw what 10. angry hungry grateful IO

was the .............. ........ and was so . ..
to see the lion suffer that he forgot to be frightened.
Very .................... ........ he pulled the thorn out of the 13. hunter king people 13

(■RI

lion’s foot. The ........................... was so
that he.................. ... the shepherd’s . .
and went away without.............................,. . him.

12. eating

thanking harming

(12)
Not long after, the............................. was blamed for

shepherd king

which he had n o t............ ................ The said: “He ............ ................... die. Throw . ............... .... into the lion’s den.” So the king’s m e n ........ .......... .................. . shepherd and

put him into the ................................. . with a great .. It was the very . .......................the shepherd had . .. .................. near the forest. And lo 1

a

cruel deed

(13)

Instead of ........
lion only licked his hand.

The...................................was amazed.

(17)

his power over the .......................... ............................... t h e ....................

(19)

this, the...................................said, “This man . ..

(21)

Have you heard this story before?.........................

Score........ ......

the

(16)

deed. Let him go.”
.................................him of...............................

.

30. Was the name of this story, “The story that had no end”?.............(yes Have you heard this story before?...............................(yes no)

So the..................................

(20)

.......................no .................................

(22)

freed and after that no...................

27. Did he say, “Take my daughter and half mykingdom and don’t
speak to me again”?.....................................................................................(yes no didn’t say) 27

28. Did the young man marry the princess ?...................................................(yes no didn’t say) 28 29. Did the king ever want to hear another story......................................... (yes no didn’t say) 29

(23) (24) . (25)

no didn’t say) 30

Score. ..............

................... ,

He . .. Then the o f ...............

no didn’t say) 25 26. Did the king finally say, “Man, man, your story will lastforever”?(yes no didn’t say) 26

(10)

place man

1. time
2. man
3. street
4. tack
5. back
6. came
7. shepherd hunter woodsman 7 8. glad sorry anxious 8 9. gently nicely suddenly 9

hand foot
limped ran 6

Was the king fond of hearing stories?.......................................................(yes Did the king offer his daughter to any one who could tell him a story that would last forever ?..........................................................................(yes Did he offer all his kingdom also ?.............................................................. (yes Did he say, “but if he fails he shall be cast into prison”?................... (yes Was the king’s daughter pretty?................................................................(yes Did she like stories, too ?.............................................................................. (yes Did the story say that after a long time a young man came and offered to tell the king a story ?............................................................(yes

Did the first man’s story last a week?...................................................... (yes

that will last forever ” ?.........................................................................(yes
14. Did the king beg the young man not to try?............................................(yes 15. Was the king’s daughter afraid he would fail?........................................ (yes 16. Did she love him and so not want to see him killed?.............................(yes 17. Did the young man tell the princess to have no fear?............................ (yes 18. According to the young man’s story, did a rich man order a huge granary built ?.........................................................................................(yes
19. Did he have it filled with oats to the very tip-top ?.................................(yes 20. Was a very small hole left between the bricks near the ground?.. . . (yes 21. Was the hole just big enough to let one little ant through?.................(yes 22. Did the young man say that one day a little ant went in and carried
off a grain of wheat ?.............................................................................(yes
23. Did he say that the next day another little ant went in and carried

off another grain of wheat ?...............................................................(yes 24. Did the king plead with the young man to tell him what happened after that?...............................................................................................(yes 25. Did the young man say, “Why, after that the ants just kept on carry­ ing off the wheat ” ?............................................................................... (yes

11. hand

14. must may will 14 15. man shout lion 15

9.
10. Did the king then order another man to tell him a story?.....................(yes 11. Did each man’s story last longer than that of the onebefore?...........(yes 12. Were all the young men who came totell stories handsome?................. (yes 13. Did a handsome young man say to the king, “I can tell you a story

sheep dog

II

12

killing helping

16. fighting
17. lion
18. explain give keep 18 19. softened relieved satisfied 19 20. hunger anger suffering 20 21. king people men 21 22. cruel kind good 22 23. dog lion shepherd 23 24. knew accused hurt 24 25. many other cruel 25

the shepherd to...................................

(18)

....................... how he had ...................... U p o n .........................

16

17

5

'

Begin here:

i. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

Was the first man’s head cut off?...............................................................(yes

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Lesson Pi an for "How to Run a Meeti ng"

1st Class Meeting
There is a need for recognized orderly procedure to be followed

in ail meetings. Basically all law is based on customs. Rules should be applied and interpreted so as to permit a majority to accomplish its purpose within a reasonable period of time, but only after allowing the minority a reasonable opportunity to express its views on the questions and issues.

The effective individual functions through groups, it is the
group that gives him weight. In every field of endeavor therefore, the effective individual must be effective in groups. He must
be a group leader, not necessarily the chairman of that group,
but at least the leader of some activity or policy of the group. Group leadership is an art that anyone can learn. First, by

learning the rules for group discussion and action called Pariiamentary Procedure and second, by practice in the art of

leadership.

The democratic procedure in an organization is based absolutely
upon the principle of majority rule, but majority rule requires that the minority abide by the rules of the majority. The willingness
of the minority to abide by the will of the majority is, in turn, based on the willingness of the majority to permit the minority

to have their say before the final action is taken. These rules

2-

are the 'foundation of fairness in every meeting, large or
small. Good citizenship, in a group, is the habit of dealing
fairly with one’s fellow citizens, it is the habil of giving
one’s best thoughts and efforts for the genera; welfare, buI
at the same time, being willing to consider The thoughts and efloi is of others, and if need be, compromising with or submitting to the thoughts and efforts of the majority of one’s yellow ci ilzens.
For a group to be of a maximum effectiveness, i I" must have aole

leadership and a high degree of competence among iIs’ mombeis.
This means that the members must know how to come to decisions
and how to bring these decisions into a form that can be acted upon

by the group. This also means that the chairman must know how to start and direct group discussion and how to bring these discussions to a point where the group can take action.

CHAIRMANSHIP
A good chairman must inspire confidence by his assurance and must keep the assembly informed at all times as to what is before them for consideration and vote. No chairman can inspire confidence and maintain the dignity of the group when he is making one wrong decision after another.

Group discussion and group action require rules for their opera!ion. These rules are called Pariiamentary Procedure. The average citizen

needs to know enough Pari Iamentary Procedure to sat Isfactorily fill the group position in which he finds himseif from time to time.

The manual, 11Par I i amenta ry Procedure at a Glance", provides a handy reference just as the dictionary does.

The chairman must follow certain steps in holding meetings. First, an order of business (Agenda) must be established.

(Refer to page 2 of Pamphlet) Steps for the chairman to take in holding a meeting:

a. Call the meeting to order.
b. Hear the minutes of the previous meeting.
c. Hoar reports of officers, boards and standing committees. d. Reports of special committees.

e. Unfinished business or old business.
f. New business. ' g. Adjournment.

(See example of Agenda III)

Motions:
There are many kinds of motions that come up at a meeting. What

is important about motions is the sequences or the order of

importance of motions. Each motion has eight different questions which can be applied to it.

1. May this motion be applied to other motions?
2. May the mover of this motion interrupt another member

who is speaking?
3. Must a member be recognized by the chair before he

can make this motion?
4. Must this motion be seconded before it's officially

before the group?

-4-

5. Is this motion debatable?
6. What vote is required for its' adoption?
7. May this motion be renewed after it has been

voted down?
8. What other motion may apply to This motion?

Refer to index at center of booklet or last page of handout, which are a handy reference section to answering these questions. These sections w ill te ll how to handle specific motions as
they arise.

Precedence or Sequence of Motions (Refer to page 4 of Pamphlet) I. A privileged motion comes before all other motions

because it concerns the rights and privileges of

members. EXAMPLE: See page 4 of Pamphlet.
2. Subsidiary motions amend or otherwise dispose of

other motions.
3. Incidental motions. Motions that arise out of and

are concerned with small matters.
4. Main motions. Bring a new proposal before the group.

Amendments
The means by which an original proposal is changed. Amendments are similar to what we do when we correct a sentence. We amend to make a motion mean exactly what we have in mind, but it must
be pertinent or related to the main idea.

There are four types of amendments.
I. Amendment by striking out.

2. Amendment by inserting.

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3. Amendment by dividing.

4. Amendment by substitution.
it is the duty of the Secretary to keep track of what is

happening during the amending procedure. Once the amendment is voted on, then a vote is taken on the motion as amended.

2nd Class MoeI'Iru| Nominations and El oct Ions.

, t

There are generally two types of nominations. (I) Nominations
from the. floor, usually suitable for small groups and (2) nomina­ tions by a nominating committee, which is suitable for large groups.

Procedure for (I) (Nominations from the Floor) is as follows: The chairman calls for nominations. This type of, nomination does not need a second, but a second may be made to show support for the candidate. When a sufficient number of nominations are made, someone makes a motion to close nominations. This motion needs a second and a 2/3 vote,

The procedure for nominations by a Nominating Committee is as follows: The Nominating Committee is chosen by the group or appointed by the chairman. This committee then makes up a list
of one or more nominees for each office and presents these names to the group in the form of a Committee Report. These nominations

can be added to by other nominations from the floor. A Nominating Committee has the advantage of being able to consult the nominees in advance to be sure that the nominees will

/ 4 ,

.

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,

-5

When it Is
leaders of your group, this is done by nominations and elections.

necessary

to help

choose

accept the nomination when it is made. The Nominating Committee can also form this group of nominees into a
"Slate" for the different offices that will work together harmoniously. The entJre "Slate" of the Nominating Committee must be accepted for office unanimously. If any dissenting votes are cast, further nominations for that particular position must be opened in the usual fashion, and the election would then proceed In the regular way.

E lections.
Elections may be decided by a plurality or a majority vote.

In a plurality election, the candidate with the largest number of votes is elected. The use of a majority vote is considered better, because majority means one more than 1/2 the voting membership have elected that officer.

I

Balloting may be done by a show of hands or by a written ballot, whichever the group as a whole decides is easier for them. A written ballot is better for recounting or checking the number of votes If any question arises,

Committees
Committees, Standing or Special, are usually made up of members chosen by the chair or comprised of volunteers, but where it is preferable to have an elected committee, several methods for electing a committee are available. If it is a committee of five, (or 4
or 3), each member votes for five persons and the top five are

elected. Another method is to have each member cast one vote for

-7-

one candidate and the five candidates with the greatest number of votes would, therefore, be elected.

Secretary.
The secretary of an organization is the next officer in

importance to the chairman because he or she keeps the official record of the action of the organization. The secretary must
keep accurate minutes of each meeting and should be acquainted with Pariiamentary Procedure.

The secretary of each one of the organizations involved in these committes, to make things simpler, should also be considered the Pariiamentarian. This person should be responsible for retaining the Manual and a copy of the Pamphiet given to the class and become familiar enough with the contents of both to handle the problems

of proper procedure as they come up.