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Transcript of interview with Leander Fields Hayes by Mark Kevin Ryhlick, March 13, 1981






On March 13, 1981, collector Mark Kevin Ryhlick interviewed local technician, Leeander Fields Hayes (born on May 23rd, 1907 in Salt Lake City, Utah) in his home in Las Vegas, Nevada. This interview covers the history of entertainment in Las Vegas from the mid-forties to 1958. Brother Hayes, as he requests the collector to call him, specifically covers the local live music and comedy scenes. He also touches on the topic of segregation and how Black entertainers, such as Lena Horne, were treated when they came to perform in Las Vegas, Nevada.

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Hayes, Leander Fields Interview, 1981 March 13. OH-00819. [Transcript.] Oral History Research Center, Special Collections & Archives, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Las Vegas, Nevada.


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UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes i An Interview with Leeander Fields Hayes An Oral History Conducted by Mark Kevin Ryhlick Ralph Roske Oral History Project on Early Las Vegas Special Collections and Archives Oral History Research Center University Libraries University of Nevada, Las Vegas UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes ii © Ralph Roske Oral History Project on Early Las Vegas University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2019 UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes iii The Oral History Research Center (OHRC) was formally established by the Board of Regents of the University of Nevada System in September 2003 as an entity of the UNLV University Libraries’ Special Collections Division. The OHRC conducts oral interviews with individuals who are selected for their ability to provide first-hand observations on a variety of historical topics in Las Vegas and Southern Nevada. The OHRC is also home to legacy oral history interviews conducted prior to its establishment including many conducted by UNLV History Professor Ralph Roske and his students. This legacy interview transcript received minimal editing, such as the elimination of fragments, false starts, and repetitions in order to enhance the reader's understanding of the material. All measures have been taken to preserve the style and language of the narrator. The interviewee/narrator was not involved in the editing process. UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes iv Abstract On March 13, 1981, collector Mark Kevin Ryhlick interviewed local technician, Leeander Fields Hayes (born on May 23rd, 1907 in Salt Lake City, Utah) in his home in Las Vegas, Nevada. This interview covers the history of entertainment in Las Vegas from the mid-forties to 1958. Brother Hayes, as he requests the collector to call him, specifically covers the local live music and comedy scenes. He also touches on the topic of segregation and how Black entertainers, such as Lena Horne, were treated when they came to perform in Las Vegas, Nevada. UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes v UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 1 This interview is taking place on March 13th, 1981, at 4:30 P.M. The location is 88 Beasley Drive. The narrator’s name is Leeander Fields Hayes, and the interviewer’s name is Mark Kevin Ryhlick. I will be referring to Leeander Fields Hayes this afternoon as Brother Hayes, at his request. Brother Hayes, I would—believe the first thing I would like to ask you is, what are you—the first experiences in which you remember? And what was the date in which you first came to Las Vegas? I arrived here at about 10:30 P.M. December the 21st, 1941. And for those people that are young, that was two weeks after Pearl Harbor. And a lot of things were happening in Las Vegas that maybe the first time you heard that date it didn’t mean anything to you. Submarines had been spotted off the Pacific Coast and the big power dam at Boulder City, they knew would be a prime target. So we had the military, marines, soldiers, sailors, everything, in here setting up guns, around Boulder Dam. To this day you can still see if you know where to look—machine gun mesh, up around the rim of the dam, to protect it from anyone trying to drop a bomb, you know, carry a bomb, in on the dam, or drop one down from the face of it. They were even loading a hundred and five millimeter canons that they were ‘gonna use on aircraft, if that, those things starting coming over. Now I realize that this is not perhaps, show business. But it’s show business in the fact that this is how it affects people. Here was a town that was supposed have been all lights, and here was a town with their windows, with their casinos painted black. No lights outside at nights, blacker than pitch. Now that would be a hard thing to imagine today. In fact, it would be something that’d be darn hard to accomplish today, to get a blackout. Unless the power company just shut her down. Anyway, I had come down here at the request of the motion picture operator’s local in this town, to give them some relief. They had a day off a week off or UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 2 anything, vacation for nearly two years. So, my local in Logan, Utah gave me permission to come down here from works some vacations for these fellas, which they were just tickled to death to have me coming. And the date, if you recall the twenty-first of December brought me in close to New Years. So I saw first-hand, the first time Las Vegas had put on a New Year’s Party, and little show. Now the little show consisted of four girls in the line. They called it the chorus line. And they did a little dance on these little platforms that they had. And no spotlight or anything like that, just a few lights outside, where a busboy would go turn on a switch or two like you use in your own home. That was at the El Rancho Vegas and I think this is maybe of some interest to people. The El Rancho Vegas was built to operate as a motel before gambling was legalized in the state of Nevada. When the gambling was legalized, the El Rancho Vegas opened up a casino. Put in the crap table and roulette wheels just like machines and the 21 tables. And made it pretty fancy for El Rancho Vegas. And it was a nice place but they had no facilities for show business and this was where my work started. Brother Hayes, being an audio sound technician and working with the entertainment industry as it was just getting started, what are some of the advances and some of the stage techniques in which many of the new hotels that were opening up at that time innovated? From the El Rancho we come to the big new—it was called a big new Last Frontier Hotel and I’d like to remember the name of the man who built it. ‘Cause he was quite a—well, he loved good food, he loved beautiful women and he loved good shows. And I’m sorry that I can’t remember the name, man’s name, but I’ll probably get it before we get through with this recording session. However, the Last Frontier was the first place to put on a real up-to-date show. Their show or stage facilities were very inadequate. They had built a little platform and that’s about all you could say for it—for the band and for some of the entertainers to use. Then UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 3 there was a little, like a twelve by sixteen foot hardwood floor for dancing. And the tables for dining were arranged all around that. And I have to say that with the very inadequate equipment, the young man who was operating the wires, what they call a stage electrician, was doing a beautiful job. And here’s another name that I’ve got to wait another further to catch up with. He is now, or was up until two or three years ago, the golf pro of the Tropicana Golf Course. Hm. No, the Desert Inn Golf Course. That was right. He was the pro of the Desert Inn Golf Course. But he was the young man who was running the lights at the Last Frontier when I came into town. What capacity did that showroom have for seating? I think it would seat about two hundred. About two hundred? Yes. How were—? And that’s packing it. How were the—was the business back then? Was the—did the theatre stay fairly busy? Oh yes. But you must understand in those days, they never expected the dining facilities to pay for the show. No way. The casino paid for the show. The food charges—the price of the meals were such just to take care of the cost to the hotel, and the cost to the hotel of the food that was served and those people who served it. The show was paid for by the casino, which is entirely not that way today. And as I go along, I’ll show you where the changeover was made and where people kind of got upset because of the price of seeing a show. I see. UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 4 Oh, I’ll say right in here now, when you went to a show, you didn’t have to buy anything. Not a penny. They couldn’t charge you a thing. If the maître D would send a captain to seat you, you got to see that show. You didn’t have to order a drink or anything to eat. See the show, enjoy, dance afterward, if you want. ‘Cause they always had some good orchestras. See, so nothing was mandatory then, they could just go in and see the show if they wanted to and there was, had no—? That’s right. But you could understand, they had the maître D’s controlling the people, which you would have to do. But you mean only certain people would be allowed to do that, on the shows, back then, or was that—? Well, now what I’m trying to say is—they just don’t turn a flock of people loose in there to go ahead and get a table where they want to and ride corrals around. The captain or the maître D would instruct the captain to take this party, certain, certain table. But you never got to sit down and handed a ticket before you practically got your glass in your hand, like you do today. They were very accommodating. Very courteous. A little more personal than they are today. Yes. Yes. But yes. They were out to build up a business, and this is the way to do it. If there’s one of these hotels that don’t believe that just give ‘em time and they’ll go broke. (Laughs) That’s right. Well, let’s see, after the El Rancho—no, after the Last Frontier Hotel opened up, the two men who owned the Old Palace Theatre got the Golden Nugget Casino uptown going. And they, at that time, I’ve talked to ‘em, of course, working for them, I knew them well, we knew them at first name association. They wanted that entire block in which today, I believe they own that UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 5 entire block. But that took some maneuvering and patience to be able to acquire all that property and get that big fine casino and hotel up. And it is a beautiful place, today. But they understood because they were running a motion picture, they had association with our union and understood when I told them that their best bet was to pay a few dollars for a man to take care of their entertainers everyday there, than to just let it run wild. And the entertainers—unhappy when they were there. Unhappy when they left. Pay somebody to be a little personal service to them and watch how quick you get a topnotch show, which they did. And this is where they really made money, at the Golden Nugget. Brother Hayes, who were some of the entertainers that the Golden Nugget was featuring? And what were the different forms of entertainment that the other hotels were offering at this time in Las Vegas? Slim Whitman. He was one of the entertainers, which of course, if I could recall all of the wonderful western country music entertainers that come into the Golden Nugget, oh why they had it and drew the crown, believe me. Was that one of the—kind of the top places for entertainment here in Las Vegas at that time? Only for western and cowboy music. I see. What do they call it? Western? Country music. Country music, country and western music. Yes. UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 6 That’s the kind of entertainment they had there. And of course it fit right along with the, you know, as the Frontier and now when you go down to the Last Frontier Hotel, there you see the lavish, beautiful girls and beautiful dresses and fine music and wonderful food. Was that more of a higher class establishment? Yes. Yes. That was playing to the elite of the entire western part of the country, that’s what that was. I see. And then, they started construction of the Flamingo Hotel. Now the Flamingo was built with materials that the war production board said were not available to anybody. But they got them. Steel, copper, concrete, hardwood. And they’d build a beautiful place, that Flamingo Hotel. And this man, Benny Siegel, it was quite open in all the papers and everything around, that he was one of the key men in Murder Incorporated of Chicago. Well, I got to know him personally in first name, the way we greet each other. And you would never, at least I would never know that he was a murderer or anything else. He was just a good employer. That’s all I could say for him. And one who would tell you, you ask a question, he’d give you a straight out answer. Because after the Flamingo opened, which was—and this was quite a day, the 26th of December, the day after Christmas, 1946, and that’s the day to remember. The first two days were invitational only. But it was free to you. You had of course, to play at your gambling, however the management would put the money in your hand, if they thought you wanted to gamble and didn’t want to risk any of your own, I know of that because I’d seen it many times. But the show and the dinner or the second show, whenever it happened to be, was free to those people who got an invitation. And the unusual thing about this invitation was that it was delivered by courier in a big limousine. I know because I received one at my home on Fifteenth Street. Here this great long UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 7 black Cadillac pulled up and a uniformed courier comes and bring this big beautiful invitation to my front door. So as I say, the first two nights were invitation. And then, they get them ready for the big New Year blowout. And a lot of people get it, a misconception of when the Flamingo opened and there have been a lot of people who have made positive statements, that it opened on Christmas, that is didn’t open until the first of the year, you know, and some said it was in the 1940s, first of the year, 1948, practically. But it was New Year’s or Christmas, before New Years of 1946, ’47 that it opened up. The largest most prestigious show that had ever been produced, out in the west. Such names as Jimmy Durante, Rosemary, Xavier Cugat, and what was that girl’s name? She’s still around. Anyway, that was the show and this brought down a lot of criticism from the other hotels. The first show of the Flamingo Hotel was December the 26th, 1946. Now these are coming from papers that were written a long time ago. Jimmy Durante co-starring Rosemary, Xavier Cugat Orchestra, and the June Taylor dancers. Now that in itself was a—normally a show. And this—oh yes. This entire show was a cost of five thousand dollars a week. Nobody had ever spent that kind of money on a show in Las Vegas or any place else around this country. This brought condemnation of Ben Siegel, by the Last Frontier and the El Rancho Vegas, because they’ve been putting on shows for maybe twelve hundred, fifteen hundred dollars. Now that was per week, again, right? Yes. Mm-hmm. I see. Now all of a sudden the figures up to five thousand, would you believe? Did that—were those figures kind of out of the reach of those other establishments at the other hotels? UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 8 Oh no. But they just didn’t like to pay that kind of money for entertainment. I see. But from that day on, that’s when this old man got his foot in the door. And I just kept pushing it open, pushing it open. Finally we came up with a show like at the Stardust hotel, no one had ever seen the likes of it in the United States. I had friends of mine who worked in the Radio City Musical, in New York City, come out here to see that. They didn’t believe it could be done—what we had done, but we’ll come back to more about that Last Front—or the Stardust Hotel, (Unintelligible) show, a little later here. I had one question, that—as far as the entertainers when the entertainment was just getting started—how were the entertainers to work with as far as the, maybe some of the entertainers that were just breaking into the business versus some of the established old-time entertainers? Well, you have to remember this—that no entertainer ever breaks in on any of these hotels even today, for the first time. Well, they’re all trained, they’re all brought up to understand what the rules are on the stage before they ever get there. But once in a while, one little smart aleck will get through but they’ll cut him down now. That don’t mean my people, supporting the entertainers. I mean to manager to the hotel would put that guy in his place real quick. How were the entertainers to work with as far as, on a person-to-person level? Always the—what we call the pros were beautiful to work with. They seem to understand your problems and would always try to work with you to alleviate the problem, to put them in the best show, atmosphere that’s possible. But not demanding things that they couldn’t get, beautiful. But again, like I say, the new beginners, some of the demands they make is ridiculous. But the thing that’ll always amaze you would be how they come in and start demanding things. Not by their UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 9 own experience but somebody who is managing them, their show manager, he will try to get somebody like—security at one of the lounges here, with no follow spot at all. And maybe a little keyboard that somebody has to push with their foot in the band a little change of lights. This fellow is trying to get a spotlight effect on him. Now there’s where you have trouble. It’s not really the entertainer, it’s the person who is their manager that generally causes you the trouble. As soon as you could spread those to the part, and let each one of those understand what facilities you’ve got, and you’ll give ‘em the best they can. It cools down and maybe for a couple of weeks or a month, however long they stay, everything is happy. How did the entertainers feel about Las Vegas then? How did they feel about appearing here? Well, now here’s quite a story. We’re not ‘gonna go off tape here are we? This is—oh, we should (unintelligible) alright. This is concerning—and since you asked that question, I must remind you, at that time when I came here—no black people were allowed in these resort hotels. So when you get entertainers like Lena Horne and I don’t know whether you know of her but she was one of the top entertainers in the 1940s. She’s still a pretty big star, she was on one of these big shows, Dean Martin Show not too long ago, I’d say within three or four weeks. Anyway, they had to stay at a woman’s home, over on the Westside. And this is a terrible thing to say, I even hate to mention it. Because it’s degrading to everybody. I don’t even like to think that the people in Las Vegas would even sit still to see such a thing happen. If this person can come in and entertain all those people out in that beautiful dining room, they should be entitled to the best room in that hotel, if they want it. But this is the thing I’m bringing up. Anyone, who came here was supposed to follow those rules, Black or White. Such a people, as I said, Lena Horne, Pearl Bailey. UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 10 Brother Hayes. After these circumstances changed and there wasn’t any segregation, where did many of the entertainers stay, that performed at the Flamingo Hotel? So, then, Lena Horne, like, she gets to the big top suite in the Last Frontier Hotel, or Flamingo Hotel. Do you remember what the original building in the Flamingo Hotel looked like? I remember what it looked like before, they recently changed it into the Flamingo Hilton. Oh. Yes. That— Probably in 1968, ’69, ’70. Yes, well, that had been changed a lot before then. But that was the suite of rooms that Ben Siegel had. The only way you could get up there was the elevator. And he could stop the elevator any time he wanted to. What did they call that? The Penthouse. Yes. I got—(unintelligible) well, anyway, when—when the Flamingo got to operating for about the year, Wilbur Clark started building his Desert Inn Hotel. And this was then, we would call it, the fourth resort hotel in Las Vegas. And there of course, I got my foot in the door again, and then we began to build up show business right there. After they could see what we could do. What are some of the changes in which you innovated into the industry at that time? Oh yes. Now this, I’m glad you reminded me of that. Because this is quite important as far as I’m concerned, in that you have to remember—or you should be informed that the man that controls the lighting board was always on the stage. Either right stage or left stage and I’ll always remember right stage or left stage is to the performer, not to the audience. So you don’t get mixed up. And down the stage was down towards the footlights and upstage is up towards the backdrop. Now there was no way for the man who was running the lighting control board to see UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 11 what he was—if you would use, let me use the expression, the picture he’s painting with lights. And if you go in there, you’ll see where this is not my idea, this is some editorial wise guy who tells you that I did—I was the, was one of the great painters. I’ll get to it. I said, the lighting controls have got to be out in the front where the man who is controlling them sees what the effect is. In other words, sees what the audience sees. That’s right. He must see what his lights are doing. And if he has any artistic ability at all, he will paint a beautiful picture with the beautiful lights. And there again is where we come right out to the front. Las Vegas began right there, to be the showplace of the world. Because nobody else could do that, see. I wouldn’t allow another place built in this town, but what—they let the lighting control be out in the front. Then I had to start fighting for the sound control. Always before they put the sound booths like at the Flamingo off on stage left, up above. Inside a little room. Now how in the sand hill does the man controlling the sound know what the poor audience out there is ‘gonna hear. No way. I spent the next twenty-five years of my life fighting maître D’s and owners of those places to get the sound, control man, the man controlling the sound out right in the middle of the audience. So he could hear what they were hearing. And by this everybody was happy. Brother Hayes, what was the quality of the audio sound equipment that you had to work with at this time? Well, this is a question that any student in electronics should be interested in following through to verify what I’m telling them. When the sound system was installed at the Flamingo Hotel it had a lot of small speakers in the ceiling. Now to the best of our knowledge in those days it was referred to as a seventy vault line to the speakers and then tap off transformers allowing a certain UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 12 amount of power to go to that speaker column. And then many speakers on that single line. This is called a seventy vault line. The big problem there that we didn’t recognize for quite a while and maybe engineers knew about it before I did. But I know for one man who began to ask questions why do we have all this distortion in the sound? Each one of those speakers reproduces a certain percentage of sound. And each speaker in those days had a different amount of clear sound reproduction or distortion. Each one of the little transformers added distortion. The microphones added distortion. The amplifier itself in those days, the specifications for sound systems were eight percent distortion. Now if you ask somebody just coming up in the audio sound business today, how would you like to have an amplifier with the best possible response, eight percent distortion? That man would tell you immediately, you can’t run it. You got distortion before you got any output sound. That was it. Brother Hayes, who were some of the great entertainers that you remember that were playing back at the Flamingo at this time and what were some of the—the difficulties in which you personally had putting on the show in which they were giving at that time? We had one group at the Flamingo that was much in demand. And one of the fellows are still one of the great entertainers. I think it was him and his two brothers. The Williams Brothers. Williams? Does that sound—? Andy Williams, sure. Oh yes. Andy Williams and his two brothers and they were coached by a very famous woman choreographer. And she was part of their act. So Andy Williams, he used to perform with his brothers? Oh yes. They had a beautiful act. But our problem was, we had to have the microphones hanging down over their head. And they didn’t make a microphone that would hang down and let the UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 13 sound come up and hit into the diaphragm of the microphone that way. It was this big old bulky—you probably seen them or maybe you forgot ‘em, you don’t see ‘em much anymore, a Shure microphone. Well, in those days, that was one of the best microphones, as far as pick up. It would pick up with so much other distortion around it, no other microphone would, could compete with it. And this was a big old microphone. They made another one that’s smaller. But it had to hang from the ceiling. Now that’s tough to pick up somebody underneath. So we’d hang three of these microphones down, and I had a hand line, up in the booth—now remember this—this is the lighting booth, is up and in front of the stage. And you’re looking down at the stage like this. I’m holding that string that controls those microphones up and down in my teeth. Over my head I’ve got the old, dimmers, and over here on my left hand, I’ve got a big seventy amperes spotlight. That was my job. So they were—everything was controlled manual back then? Yes. Everything practically like that is controlled manually, today. No getting out of it. This is the end of side one. Please turn the cassette tape over for side two. Time and a little maybe later than that is when Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis came out from their first appearance at the Capital Theatre in New York. But they found out that their type of entertainment was not suited for the vaudeville theatre, theirs was nightclub stuff. And they come out here and they were a big hit right off. But they were young and those were the two I’m always referring back to when I say, you get the young entertainers and they’re hard to handle. They just don’t understand. But always Dean Martin was the easiest. Jerry Lewis was the hardest man to satisfy. But both wonderful people. I have nothing but good to say about them. However, I had my tongue in the cheek when I said that, because they got drunk on the stage at one night and began to squirt seltzer bottles that they had taken off the tables of their audience, you know, UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 14 that, this once were the whole audience and the entertainers make a big party right on the stage. They’re squirting the seltzer bottles in to my microphones. (Laughs) Well, the microphones are still working fine and I don’t give it another thought until the next night we get ready for a show. You couldn’t get a sound out of that microphone. That seltzer bottle was sullen. The diaphragm on that microphone was just welded in there solid. Oh my goodness. I never would have forget that. (Laughs) Did—did Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis when they first came out here, did they work together back then? Oh yes. Or worked separately? They were a team. Oh I see. They— They do all of—that’s the way they, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis. Martin and Lewis. I see. So they initially started out together. Oh yes. Yes. It wasn’t until after they got success at the Flamingo and two motion pictures that they split up. How were—how’d the pair work together on stage? Oh for those days beautiful, they made a beautiful team. Dean more or less the straight man and Jerry the comedian. I see. And here it was a real good act, for night clubs. UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 15 I see. They get pretty raucous at some times. If that word means anything to you. And after we come at that point in show business in Las Vegas, you must remember that such shows as Liberace as appearing at the Last Frontier. What date would this be now? What time was this? Now we’re talking approximately, well, Liberace was coming into the Last Frontier before the Flamingo ever opened. I see. Okay. And the El Rancho was hanging in there with one of their favorite comedians and the great nightclub entertainer, Joe W. Brown. And you probably never heard of him but one the— No. I’m not familiar. Corniest comedians that ever come on a stage but the kind that nightclub, making the rounds of the nightclub they—they loved him. Because he would tell these dirty stories, off cover stories, or whatever you want to call them and make you like ‘em. He was—he was, in those days, a lot like (unintelligible) that appears at the Flamingo—or at the Sahara. Not Rich Little? Or? No. A comedian. A round faced guy who’s always getting on the people in the audience. Not Buddy Hogget? Rick, Rick. Oh. Rick—what’s his name? Rickett? Don Rickles? UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 16 Don Rickles. Joe W. Brown was a lot like Joe E. Brown—had that same kind of an act. But more suave. He was—oh, he was delightful to hear. Now this is going on at the El Rancho, Liberace is appearing at the Last Frontier and he comes in with this beautiful eleven foot gold grand piano. And in clothes of course that would just knock your eye out. So in other words he was more or less, pretty much the same back then as he is today? Oh yes. In the flashy outfits? Oh yes. And. Those clothes of his were really something and when he wore a mink cape you can bet your life that was the best mink he could buy in this entire world. And nobody had ever seen a man wear such clothes as that. How did the people at that time react to his kind of, I guess, innovative dress and style of performing? This—I’m not going to say that this interfered with his personality. Because he had the most winning personality of any man you would ever meet. Now some of the other men may not like him at all because they might feel him to be a little effeminate. Mm-hmm. But when you took and looked at the man the way he dressed, the way he played the piano, and you knew darn well he had to take care of those hands of his, there was no other way. Mm-hmm. So he was a full man, and if you wore those clothes it was of course to add to his—whatever the word is that they— UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 17 Unique, maybe, or? ‘Cause he would just—he would just lay the women on the floor you know that. (Laughs) (Laughs) But he—he was the entertainment, and still is, I’m telling you. He would hold up his own with the best of them, today. Then we go back to the Flamingo. The Flamingo begins to bring in such shows as Olson and Johnson, now maybe you don’t know what they were. No. I’m not familiar with them. Maybe you could elaborate. Were they a singing team or comedian, or? Oh no. Olson and Johnson brought in a big variety show. I see. And it would move so fast that they’d have to have a man in the booth with the spotlight operators calling the spotlight cues at the opening of their show. That’s how fast this thing was. The people weren’t on the stage. They were out in the audience. Hm. So with the—the cue master would come into the booth and he’d tell the men, “I’ll give you right and left.” And he would stand where he could—he could show, out through the port window, about where the person was standing, and the guy running the spotlight was supposed to pick it out, couldn’t see a thing, until he popped that light open and it couldn’t come sneaking open, it had to pop right open. If you were wrong then you were supposed to move quickly and get right on the person. But the entertainers that were out in that audience, knew your problems as a spotlight operator and they would always move towards the light the instance they saw it come on. I see. UNLV University Libraries Leeander Fields Hayes 18 So that always—Nevada was a unison of efforts, you know there that you couldn’t beat. Well, now we come to the Last Frontier, which had Liberace and I was telling you about his piano and his costumes. He was an entertainer. With Joe E. Brown and his jokes at the El Rancho and Frankie Lane at the El Rancho, they had beautiful songs like—what did I say that favorite song? Mule Train. Maybe that will bring somebody’s ears up and perking right there. And Spike Jones at the Flamingo and his crazy show. In the middle of the year, we would have Spike Jones, at the end of the year we would have Olson and Johnson. In the middle of the year, we would have beautiful Lena Horne. Or—she’s on an advertising on tele