Skip to main content

Search the Special Collections and Archives Portal

Program, The Memory Book accompanying The Diary of Anne Frank premiere performance, February 2009






This program accompanied the performance of the Broadway adaptation of the Diary of Anne Frank by the Nevada Conservatory Theatre. The program was produced by the Jewish Family Service Agency. It includes biographies of survivors living in Southern Nevada and an educational guide.

Digital ID



jhp000598. Holocaust Survivors Group of Southern Nevada Records, 1965, 1972, 1999-2016. MS-00741. Special Collections, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Las Vegas, Nevada.


This material is made available to facilitate private study, scholarship, or research. It may be protected by copyright, trademark, privacy, publicity rights, or other interests not owned by UNLV. Users are responsible for determining whether permissions are necessary from rights owners for any intended use and for obtaining all required permissions. Acknowledgement of the UNLV University Libraries is requested. For more information, please see the UNLV Special Collections policies on reproduction and use ( or contact us at

Standardized Rights Statement

Digital Provenance

Digitized materials: physical originals can be viewed in Special Collections and Archives reading room

Date Digitized



2332 x 3307 pixels
7.8 x 10. 9 inches
1,682,598,146 bytes
68 images





The Diary of Anne Frank premiere performance Judy Bayley Theatre, UNLV February 12, 2009 the Memory Book Dedicated to the millions who perished and to those who survived I N WARSAW WE SAW DEATH, IN LAS VEGAS WE FOUND LIFE. THANK YOU JFSA F O R PROVIDING M U C H NEEDED PROGRAMS A N D SERVICES FOR O U R COMMUNITY. L ' D O R V ' D O R FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION LILLIAN AND HENRY KRONBERG Warsaw Ghetto Remembrance Garden TEMPLE BETH SHOLOM - LAS VEGAS, NEVADA Henry Kronberg is one of three key people instrumental in building the Warsaw Ghetto Remembrance Garden. Henry is hopeful that the garden will help the children of this generation and future generations understand the struggles and tremendous courage of the Warsaw Ghetto Jews. JFSAfta* ^ JEWISH FAMILY SERVICE AGENCY THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK EVENT CHAIRPERSONS Len Davidson Marcy Simon THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK PERFORMANCE COMMITTEE Sharry Solomon, Chairperson Judy Bachman Joan Davis Rosalie Baker Sybil Greenberg Karen Berke Jackie Kolner Kim Cooper Kim Nastaszewski THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK PHONE COMMITTEE Bette Andrews Jacki Honig Elaine Berger Sheryl Honig Estelle Braverman Ellen Ploesch Ricki Henry Lisa Powell Susanne Hersh Barbara Silver Marcia Tell O U R HEARTFELT THANKS TO THE UNLV NEVADA CONSERVATORY THEATRE FOR MAKING THIS PREMIERE PERFORMANCE POSSIBLE Brackley Frayer- Executive Director Robert Brewer - Artistic Director Lori James - PAC Director of Finance and Guest Relations Linda Campbell - Pianist Memory Book design by Deb Havre of Zaftig Studio JEWISH FAMILY SERVICE AGENCY * * x C H A N G I N G L I V E S ... B U I L D I N G A S T R O N G E R C O M M U N I T Y O N E H E A L T H I E R , H A P P I E R P E R S O N A T A T I M E 4794 S. Eastern Avenue, Suite C Las Vegas, NV 89119 (702) 732-0304 FAX (702) 794-2033 Eric Goldstein Executive Director JFSA Board of Directors Officers Bernice Friedman President Mordecai Labovitz Immediate Past President Marcy Simon First Vice President Priscilla Schwartz-Hodes Second Vice President Richard Baker, Esq. Treasurer Norma Friedman Secretary Joan Davis Member-at-Large Directors Bruno Borenstein, MD Justice Michael Cherry Len Davidson Sheldon Kolner Keri Mann Frederick Marks Philip Meisel Mark Scheiner Sharry Solomon Honorary Board Member Sharon Sigesmund Pierce February 12, 2009 On behalf of Jewish Family Service Agency (JFSA), it is our pleasure to welcome you to The Nevada Conservatory Theatre's, Las Vegas Premiere Performance of Wendy Kesselman's Broadway Adaptation of The Diary of Anne Frank. We are also delighted to be here tonight for the unveiling of the much anticipated Memory Book and Anne Frank Story Exhibit, which is on display in the theatre lobby. "The Memory Book is dedicated to the six million Jews and the five million other innocent victims who perished during the Holocaust." This evening's event and the Memory Book you are reading were made possible through the generosity of our sponsors and with the collaborative efforts of numerous committee members and volunteers. Additionally, the Memory Book would not be as insightful and informative without the valuable stories, articles and information that were submitted by other local Jewish organizations. Sponsoring events like this provides JFSA with an opportunity to work in partnership with our local community while raising awareness about the services that our agency provides. Due to the content of the play, it is only appropriate that we highlight our very successful Holocaust Survivor Assistance Program. We also felt very strongly about writing a book that would serve as an educational tool. Toward that end, we have included a brief history of the Holocaust, personal stories from several local Holocaust Survivors, and essays that were written by students. Additionally, you will find a deeply moving article written by our JFSA Clinical Director, Havi Mandell, PhD, LCSW, which examines the psychological impact of the Holocaust on Survivors, their children and grandchildren. For parents, students, and teachers, we have included information about why it is important to teach young people about the Holocaust and have provided a wonderful list of resources and an incredible pullout timeline. To everyone who contributed their time, money and resources to make this evening a success and to those who helped create the Memory Book, "thank you." Please know that we appreciate everything you have done to help keep Anne Frank's memory alive and to help us convey her sense of hope in humanity and in the future. It is this same message of hope that JFSA strives to impart to its clients every day. Bernice Friedman JFSA President Eric Goldstein Executive Director Jewish Family Service Agency of Clark County is a 501 (c) 3 non-profit organization. Our Tax I.D. Number is: 88-042948 JEWISH FAMILY SERVICE AGENCY MISSION STATEMENT Jewish Family Service Agency is a comprehensive social service agency committed to addressing the human service needs of children, adolescents and adults. While guided by Jewish principles and values, JFSA's programs and services are open to all in the community. For over 30 years, JFSA has been serving the needs of the community at large in all of Southern Nevada. JFSA does not charge membership fees or dues to conduct business. All monies raised through donations or fundraising events go directly to pay for social services. We are able to offer the services listed below with the generosity of civic minded individuals who support our fundraising efforts. Additional financial support is derived from foundations, endowments and grants provided by organizations which help underwrite our non-profit agency. JFSA SERVICES Adoption Services Emergency Financial Assistance Avodah - Job Assistance Financial Advocacy Bereavement Groups Food Pantry Counseling Health Advocacy Case Management Services Holocaust Survivor Programs Community Programming Programs to Assist Seniors Sperling Mack Kronberg Holocaust Resource Center JFSA STAFF Eric Goldstein - Executive Director Havi Mandell - Clinical Director, PhD, LCSW Elizabeth Bricker - Case Manager Ann Coleman - Adoption Coordinator Kim Nastaszewski - Holocaust Librarian Danielle Pokroy - Program Manager Sheryl Chenin-Webb - Office Manager / Development Director Ellen Grossman - Volunteer Coordinator Mark Snyder - Administrative Assistant Burt Weinerman - Administrative Assistant F R O M T H E B O A R D OF RABBIS O F S O U T H E R N N E V A D A Philosopher George Santayana wrote, "Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it" More than s years have transpired since the end of the Holocaust. With each passing decade this period in time becomes more and more likely to become a small part of the history taught to new generations of students. Crowded curricula force teachers to make choices as to what is to be taught in depth and what is to be glossed over. Sometimes the reasons are that teachers feel uncomfortable with the subject matter, others are simply ill informed, others feel that it is too particular a subject and therefore should not be singled out amongst all of the horrors of world history. It is this last point that troubles me the most. For though the Holocaust was indeed a particular experience that happened to the Jewish people, the lessons of Man's inhumanity to Mar have tremendous universal implications for everyone. Whs happened to the Jewish people in an educated society ca: happen to any people. When Jews say, "Never again" we mear; "Never again to our people, never again to any people." The Holocaust must continue to be taught in our public and private schools so that students are aware of the fragility of democracy, the dangers of propaganda, prejudice, racism and societal fear. The Holocaust must be taught because there are still those who seek to deny or minimize this experience. These individuals and organizations seek to rewrite history in order to further their extremist causes. The Holocaust must be taughl because, since World War II, there have been too many other genocides as the world looks the other way. As Jews we have a moral obligation to call the world to task for indifference and intolerance. This evening's performance of The Diary of Anne Frank brings to life the horrific experience of one family during the Holocaust as seen through the eyes of a young girl. Her diary published after the war inspired the entire world. At a time when hope was needed, her words of idealism rekindled the most basic feelings of love and trust among all people. Despite all that she faced, Anne never lost her faith in mankind: It's really a wonder that I haven't dropped all my ideals, because they seem so absurd and impossible to carry out. Yet I keep them, because in spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart We learn about the Holocaust so that we can protect this idealism and insure that we will always live in a world where good people and goodness reign. Despite the horror of the past, those who study the Holocaust will also learn of many who made tremendous personal sacrifices to save Jews-often at risk to their own lives. We learn about the Holocaust because we learn that there were many who fought against the Nazis against incredible odds, who resisted the power of hatred, and embraced the forces of good. May we who live today, continue to learn and teach the lessons of the past. And may these lessons serve as an everlasting beacon of hope of man's indomitable spirit. Picture above: The charred remains of Hebrew Prayer Books from a synagogue in the Vogelsberg district in Germany. Rabbi Sanford Akselrad, President The Board of Rabbis of Southern Nevada INTRODUCTION The Diary of Anne Frank does not need any introduction. It is a living testimony to a young Dutch Jewish girl. She is the best known victim of the Jewish genocide, known as the Holocaust. Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank was born on June 12, 1929 in Frankfurt, Germany. Her family moved to the Netherlands when Hitler came into power. When German troops occupied the Netherlands, Frank and her family spent two years hiding from the Nazis in a small set of rooms in Amsterdam, protected by non-Jewish friends. In May of 1942 Anne was given a diary as a birthday present. On the first page she wrote, "I hope I will Anne living under Nazi Rule at 263 Prinsengracht, Amsterdam, be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support." The Franks were finally discovered in August 1944 and sent to concentration camps. Anne was fifteen years old. Of the eight people in hiding, only Anne's father survived the Holocaust. Luckily her diary survived and has been read by millions of people around t h e world. A n n e Frank p e r i s h e d at t h e hands of Nazi murderers. The moveable bookcase used to conceal the entrance to the Secret Annex with the help of She died in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. There Johannes Kleiman on right. were six million Jews and five million non-Jews who perished in Nazi Concentration Camps. Many books recreating the memories of decades ago have been written about the Holocaust by Survivors. All of these testimonials put together, like a large puzzle, help to make a much larger picture, more than any single book can reveal. Our numbers are dwindling rapidly. Father Time has no mercy. We, the Survivors, must make every effort to pass on the legacy of the Holocaust to future generations. We live in a free country and have to do our best so that our Freedom prevails. It is our duty to pass on our experiences, to make sure that genocide, like the Holocaust, will "Never Again," happen to anyone. Pista, aka Steven Nasser T H E R E A R E S T I L L P E O P L E C L A I M I N G T H E H O L O C A U S T TO BE "A M Y T H . " N O W , M O R E T H A N EVER, I T IS IMPERATIVE T H A T T H E W O R L D N E V E R F O R G E T . While the charge of anti-Semitism should not be thrown around lightly, its presence is at times undeniable. Indeed, one can argue that anti-lsraelism is a modern form of anti- Semitism. In the 20th century, anti-Semitism envisioned a Europe without Jews; in the 21st century, the project of anti-Semitism is a Middle East with a Jewish state. - (In Focus: Israel at 60, Spring 2008) Synagogue in Bielefeld, Germany during the Nignt of Broken Class (KristallnachtJ, November 9,1938. ...Under the pretense of tolerance, and because we wanted to prove to ourselves that we were cured of the disease of racism, we opened our gates to intolerant people who traffic in hate. We exchanged the pursuit of peace of the Jews of Europe and their hope for a better future for their children, and their belief in the sanctity of life, for those who pursue death, for those consumed by the desire for death for themselves and others, for our children and theirs ... - Sebastian Vilar Rodrigez, Spanish writer World Trade Towers in New York City, September 11, 2001. "ALL T H A T IS N E C E S S A R Y F O R E V I L T O T R I U M P H IS F O R G O O D M E N T O D O N O T H I N G . " - EDMUND BURKE, 18TH CENTURY POLITICAL PHILOSPHER THE MURDERERS ARE LOOSE! THEY SEARCH THE WORLD ALL T H R O U G H THE NIGHT, O H G - D , ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT." - Excerpt from poem, "Murder" by Gertrude Kolmar, Jewish writer who died in Auschwitz. Taj Hotel in Mumbai, India - November 26, 2008. NEVER SHALL I FORGET By Elie Wiesel Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed Never shall I forget that smoke, never shall I forget the little faces of those children whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath the silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith for ever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me for all eternity of the desire to live Never shall 1 forget those moments which murdered my G-d and my soul and turned my dreams into dust. Never shall I forget these things, even as I am condemned to live as long as G-d Himself. Never. BY VIRTUE OF THE AUTHORITY GIVEN TO ME BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEVADA AND BY THE CHARTER OF THE CITY OF LAS VEGAS, I, OSCAR B. GOODMAN, MAYOR OF THE CITY OF LAS VEGAS, DO HEREBY PROCLAIM February 12, 2009 AS Holocaust Remembrance Day IN THE CITY OF LAS VEGAS AND I ASK ALL CITIZENS TO HONOR THE HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS OF SOUTHERN NEVADA WHO ARE MODELS OF COURAGE, FAITH, STRENGTH, WISDOM AND COMPASSION. IN WITNESS WHEREOF: BY THE POWERS GRANTED TO ME, I HAVE HEREUNTO SET MY HAND AND CAUSED THE SEAL OF THE CITY OF LAS VEGAS TO BE AFFIXED THIS 12TH DAY OF FEBRUARY, 2 0 0 9 . ^ HONORABLE OSCAR B. GOODMAN MAYOR, CITY OF LAS VEGAS Office nf tJjt ?ouertt0r JIM GIBBONS GOVERNOR February 12, 2009 MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR As Governor of the great State of Nevada, it is a pleasure to address the attendees of the Nevada Conservatory Theatre's Broadway Adaptation and Las Vegas Premier Performance of "The Diary of Anne Frank." I extend best wishes for a memorable evening. 1 commend the Jewish Family Service Agcncy for its commitment to the citizens of Silver State. It is organizations such as this that show the greatness of Nevadans by giving selfless service to the community. We are better because of the contributions of the Jewish Family Service Agency. I know of the tremendous effort it takes to organize such a large event and we applaud you. All those who played a part in this extraordinary undertaking should be recognized and commended. I salute you for your efforts. Once again, thank you for your commitment to Nevada and education throughout our communities. In the future, if there is any way I can be of assistance, please do not hesitate to contact my office. Governor of the State of Nevada /mm 1 0 1 N . CARSON STREET ? CARSON CITY, NEVADA 89701 ? TELEPHONE: (775) 684-5670 ? FAX:(775)684-5683 555 E. WASHINGTON AVENUE, SUITE 5100 ? LAS VEGAS, NEVADA 89101 ? TELEPHONE: (702) 486-2500 ? FAX: (702) 486-2505 (NSPO Rev. 3-07) (0)5089 HARRY REID NEVADA MAJORITY LEADER United States Senate WASHINGTON, DC 20510-7012 February 12, 2009 Jewish Family Services Agency 4794 South Eastern Avenue. Suite C Las Vegas, Nevada 89119 Dear Friends: Welcome to the premiere of the Nevada Conservatory Theatre's production of The Diary of Anne Frank sponsored by the Jewish Family Services Agency (JFSA). The JFSA's support of this evening's festivities is only one example of the many invaluable services they provide to our community and I thank you. Tonight, as we focus on the life of Anne Frank, we pay tribute to the six million Jews and five million other innocent victims who perished in the Holocaust. Anne's story is only one out of millions, but it helps remind each of us that we must never let this tragedy happen again. I would also like to take this opportunity to recognize the Holocaust survivors and their families in our Southern Nevada community, some of whom are here tonight. These courageous men and women are heroes we can all look up to. 1 wish you all a wonderful evening. (HARRY United States Senator JOHN ENSIGN NEVADA United States Senate WASHINGTON, DC 20510-2805 February 12, 2009 Dear Friends: More than 70 years ago, the rights of Jews in Germany and the rest of Eastern Europe were being taken away one by one. They were no longer allowed to own land, access national health insurance, or serve in the military. Soon they had to register with (he government and were forbidden from going outdoors during certain hours. Ultimately, they were imprisoned in ghettos, labor camps, and concentration camps, And, culminating in one of the most disturbing chapters of modern history, six million Jews and five million other innocent victims were killed during the Holocaust. And yet, for everything that Adolf Hitler took from the Jewish people, he could not destroy their spirit or their love of life. While there are countless stories of this resilience, the story of Anne Frank truly embodies that hope for the future. Many decades later, it is another testament to the strength of the Jewish people to be able to join together in honoring the legacy of Anne Frank, all those who perished during the Holocaust, as well as those who survived. As the father of a 13-year-old girl, 1 am especially touched by the innocence and promise of Anne Frank during the two years she shared her life through her diary. Anne Frank's story from the age of 13 to 15 is insightful and moving and has been an inspiration to millions. 1 commend the Jewish Family Service Agency for their work in honoring Anne Frank, victims of the Holocaust, and those in our community who survived. May God continue to bless you. Sincerely, CONGRESSWOMAN SHELLEY BERKLEY February 12, 2009 Jewish Family Service Agency 4794 S. Eastern Avenue, Suite C Las Vegas, NV 89119 Dear Friends: As the Representative for Nevada's First Congressional District, it is my great pleasure to congratulate the Jewish Family Service Agency (JFSA) on the publication of the JFSA Memory Book. This historical book will serve as a tribute to the six million Jews and the five million other victims who perished during the Holocaust. I am especially pleased that funds raised through the sale of ads in the JFSA Memory Book will be earmarked to support various programs of the JFSA, including the Holocaust Survivors Assistance Program, which provides services for hundreds of Holocaust survivors living in Southern Nevada. I have long been a fan of JFSA and the extraordinary mission it serves. I wish the agency continued success in serving the needs of the people of Southern Nevada. Sincerely, SHELLEY BERKLEY Member of Congress NOT PRINTED OR MAILED AT GOVERNMENT EXPENSE Congresswoman Dina Titus Nevada's Third Congressional District February 12,2009 Dear Friend of Jewish Family Service Agency: It is with great pride and respect for the Jewish Community of Southern Nevada that I take part in commemorating the lives that were lost in the Holocaust in this JFSA Memory Book. As a 30-year resident of Southern Nevada 1 have always been very impressed by the work that the Jewish Community has done and 1 have been so privileged to work with organizations such as JFSA in my capacities as State Senator and now as U.S. Representative from Nevada's Third Congressional District. The work that the JFSA does by way of counseling, case management, tzedakah, the food pantry and so much more is an inspiration to the entire Southern Nevada community. Thank you for your support of the Jewish Family Service Agency and the work that it does. Sincerely, Congresswoman Dina Titus Nevada's Third District P.O. Box 50614 - Henderson, NV 89016 According to the United States D e p a r t m e n t of Health and Human Services 2008 poverty guidelines, you are living in poverty if you are a family of one and earn less than $10,400 per year. If you live with another person and earn $14,000 per year, you are living in poverty. A family of three that earns $17,600 per year and a family of four that earns $21,200 per year are also part of the numbers of families living in poverty. Many of the Holocaust Survivors in Southern Nevada are intimately aware of this statistic, because they are on fixed incomes and are living below the poverty level. Luckily, they can obtain some relief from Jewish Family Service Agency (JFSA) because they qualify for special grants that are administered by JFSA. Through grants provided by the Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, Inc. these Survivors can avail themselves of services including home care, house cleaning, personal care, and transportation. Unfortunately, there are hundreds of other Survivors who earn slightly more than the minimum allowable amount and are not eligible to receive the services they desperately need. To serve this population of Survivors, JFSA relies on the generosity of others in the community who makecontributions to help support this worthwhile program. The Holocaust Survivors who use the services provided by JFSA are eligible to receive food year round from the Food Pantry program instead of being restricted to the typical six-month program. JFSA, which believes that Survivors have had to face starvation on too many other occasions during their lifetime, has stepped up to ensure that their shelves are not empty and devoid of nourishment. As part of the Holocaust Survivor program, survivors develop a relationship with their case manager. Recently, one of our Holocaust Survivors had a major stroke while away from home. She spent two days in the hospital as Jane Doe because she did not have identification on her person when she fell ill. When her case manager was unable to reach her at home, she grew concerned and began to contact local hospitals as well as family members of the client trying to find out what happened. Due to the case manager's diligence, this client was identified and reunited with her out-of-state daughter. Other services available through the Holocaust Survivor Program include Counseling. These clients are still trying to find a way to live with the nightmares and deal with the trauma that was inflicted over sixty years ago. JFSA provides individual counseling to Survivors at no charge. Each quarter, an average of 218 hours of referral services, restitution application assistance, and senior advocacy are provided to this population. In recent years, Las Vegas has seen significant growth in its Holocaust Survivor population. The Holocaust Survivor Group(HSG) of Las Vegas hasamembershipofover 350 individuals. Our own client list now includes 181 survivors, up from 139 in the 2nd quarter of 2007. As we further our involvement with the HSG and the Jewish Community in general, we hope to reach many more Survivors who are living in our region. By working with the president of the HSG, Dr. Bruno Borenstein, who is also a Board Member of JFSA, we have been able to identify the services that Survivors need. with their Judaism, where the goal is to give the Survivors an opportunity to celebrate the holidays with all the appropriate foods, prayers, and instruments. To do this, JFSA provides gift certificates, holiday baskets, and special events. This past Rosh Hashanah and Chanukah, JFSA and HSG collaborated on ourfirst joint programs. These events were attended by many Survivors, who affiliate with both organizations. The afternoons were filled with delicious food, informative speakers and musical entertainment. Our hope is to continue these wonderful collaborations and incorporte additional holidays during the coming year. Recently J FSA expanded our social programming Hanukkah Party at the Venetian for Holocaust Survivors to include the celebration December 8,2008. of Purim, Passover, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot and Chanukah. It is very important to help the Survivors connect Rest assured that JFSA is committed to assisting local Holocaust Survivors with any and all Life Management issues! i v i i T / t j t IRE N A SE N DLE A RIGHTEOUS CHRISTIAN a ? This Polish woman, who saved 2500 Jewish children, takes the ciying baby into her arms, turns her back on the hysterical mother, and walks off into the night. If she is caught, she and the baby will die. "Promise me my child will live!" the mother cries desperately after her. She turns for a moment. "I can't promise that. But I promise that if he stays with you, he will die. " Mrs. Sendler listed the name and new identity ofpveiy rescued child on thin cigarette papers or tissue paper. She hid the list in glass jars and buried them under an apple tree in her friend's backyard. Her hope was to reunite the children with their families after the war. Indeed, though most of the parents perished in the Warsaw Ghetto or in Treblinka, those children who had surviving relatives were returned to them after the war. W'W f- Irena saw herself as anything but a heroine. "I only did what was normal. I could have done more. " she said, "This regreet will follow me to my death. " Sadly, Irena Sendler passed away May 12, 2008. (Excerpts and photo reprinted with permission by the ? r l o ^ T / T ^ o * Jewish Foundation for the Righteous, 305 7th Ave., 19th Floor, NY, NY 10001 - GINA KLONOFF, SURVIVOR I was born in Vienna, Austria and after the Nazis occupied my country, the Jewish citizens were persecuted much more than before. It In November 1938, now referred to as Kristallnacht, all Jewish homes were M M vandalized and looted, and Jewish businesses were closed. Every synagogue in Austria was burned to the ground. Jewish children could no longer attend even the officially relegated "Jewish Schools. " Most of the adult males were arrested and taken to concentration camps from which veiy few ever returned. It was the first pogrom in the Nazi occupied land, and eventually persecution escalated wherever German occupation was in effect into the full-fledged Holocaust. My parents and I were lucky to have relatives in England who arranged for us to take refuge there just before World War II broke out. We were thus able to wait safely for United States visas, which took more than two years to be granted because of the rigid American immigration laws. Without the temporary shelter, all of us would have been confined to the Vienna Ghetto and then transported to a murder location. v-1 / don't remember the name of the place. It was in a town called Esslingen, which is near Stuttgart. What I do remember was the grey walls and the stairs that led up to the building. Down below at the bottom of the stairs there was a courtyard. There were classrooms on the first floor and upstairs were the dormitories where we slept. There was a circular staircase between the floors. I have very few memories of my time spent there, which I think is attributable to the fact that I was separatedfrom my family and missed them terribly. 1 did have one friend, a little boy who I took under my wing. I don't remember his name, but for good reason I can see him in my mind's eye to this vety day. On that terrible night, he asked me what was going on. I reassured him that everything was going to be all right. But for some reason a Nazi in a blue uniform was angry with the little boy. He grabbed him by the neck and dropped him down the center of the circular staircase. He died immediately. I knew I had to get out. 1 ran out and made my way down the stairs and pressed myself along the wall so 1 wouldn't be seen. 1 felt a hand on my shoulder, but no one was there. I passed the courtyard where all the books and the Torah were burning. I grabbed a few books out of the fire and took them with me. Somehow I made my way to the train station. How I was able to find it 1 '11 never know. All J can think is that Elijah (who I have come to believe was my guardian angel) helped me to escape from the orphanage and then led me to the station. When I got to the train station I jumped on the train without a ticket. 1 knew I had to get to Stuttgart and find an uncle who would know how to help me find my mother. I didn't realize it at the time, but this was the beginning of a three-year odyssey that would lead me to the United MARGOT GOODMAN, SURVIVOR (MY KRISTALLNACHT AS TOLD TO PAULA ROTH) ? P i s As the world now knows, Kristallnacht, or "The Night of Broken Glass", occurred on November 10, 193S. In a single night, the Nazis destroyed more than 200 synagogues and ransacked thousands of Jewish business and homes. Many were killed that awful night, but 1 survived. As 1 tell this stoiy seventy years later, my memories are those of a nine-year-old little girl living in an orphanage. But I was not an orphan. It's taken me a long time to understand why my mother sent me away. But now I realize she had no choice. My family was living in Karlsruhe when the Nazis took my father away in 1933. He was badly injured in World War I and although an invalid, was a success ful businessman. This apparently was a threat to the government. The last thing my father said to my mother when they took him was "Die Kinder erst". Literally, the children first. In other words, make sure the children are safe. We never saw my father again, and so my mother was left alone at age 34 with three small children to care for. My sister Annelotte was 12, my brother Leo was 8 and I was 5. Mother realized that in order to save us she had to send us away. I'm not sure where she sent my sister, (I later saw her once again, but she didn't survive the Nazis), but my brother was sent to Milan to be educated. 1 found him many years later, but that is a stoty for another day. 1 was sent to visit my aunt and uncle and their family in Gunzershausen. This was a resort town and remains so to this day. My relatives owned a successful restaurant (which still exists). They also had a farm where they grew their own produce and raised livestock. My memory of this time is somewhat vague, but I do remember that my uncle was shot in front of me in 1934. It must have been then that I was sent to the orphanage to be protected from harm. BILL CORWIN, LIBERATOR *Bill Corwin was born in the Bronx, New York in 1925. He grew up in a so-called "normal" society, which unfortunately included a number of lessons in "good-old " American anti- Semitism. Nonetheless, nothing in his background prepared him for the soul-wrenching events he witnessed toward the end of World War II. Mr. Corwin was a combat infantry soldier, attached to General Patton 's 3rd Army, when he took part in the liberation of the Mauthausen death camp in Austria. No one can tell Bill Corwin "it never happened. " He was there! j ^ ^ ^ j ^ ^ C y , META DORAN, SURVIVOR XP4B Meta was born in Hamburg, Germany and was the only child ofChil and Paula Kempinski. Chil was born in Poland and came to Germany in 1920 looking for a better life. He married Paula in 1924 and Meta was born in 1926. Through hard work he created a very prosperous business and everything that he dreamt of he was able to give to his family. In 1938 before the war broke