Skip to main content

Search the Special Collections and Archives Portal

Transcript of interview with Mary Kreuzer by Patricia Kohlman, December 15, 1975






On December 15, 1975, Patricia Kohlman interviewed Mary Kreuzer (born 1923 in Las Vegas, Nevada) in her home in Las Vegas. The two discuss Kreuzer’s childhood, as well as the different addresses that she’s lived at in Las Vegas. The interview concludes with a discussion on entertainment and small businesses before the population boom in Southern Nevada.

Digital ID


Physical Identifier



Kreuzer, Mary Interview, 1975 December 15. OH-01047. [Transcript.] Oral History Research Center, Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Las Vegas, Nevada.


This material is made available to facilitate private study, scholarship, or research. It may be protected by copyright, trademark, privacy, publicity rights, or other interests not owned by UNLV. Users are responsible for determining whether permissions are necessary from rights owners for any intended use and for obtaining all required permissions. Acknowledgement of the UNLV University Libraries is requested. For more information, please see the UNLV Special Collections policies on reproduction and use ( or contact us at

Standardized Rights Statement

Digital Provenance

Digitized materials: physical originals can be viewed in Special Collections and Archives reading room





UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer i An Interview with Mary F. Kreuzer An Oral History Conducted by Patricia Kay Kohlman Ralph Roske Oral History Project on Early Las Vegas Special Collections and Archives Oral History Research Center University Libraries University of Nevada, Las Vegas UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer ii © Ralph Roske Oral History Project on Early Las Vegas University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2019 UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer iii The Oral History Research Center (OHRC) was formally established by the Board of Regents of the University of Nevada System in September 2003 as an entity of the UNLV University Libraries’ Special Collections Division. The OHRC conducts oral interviews with individuals who are selected for their ability to provide first-hand observations on a variety of historical topics in Las Vegas and Southern Nevada. The OHRC is also home to legacy oral history interviews conducted prior to its establishment including many conducted by UNLV History Professor Ralph Roske and his students. This legacy interview transcript received minimal editing, such as the elimination of fragments, false starts, and repetitions in order to enhance the reader’s understanding of the material. All measures have been taken to preserve the style and language of the narrator. The interviewee/narrator was not involved in the editing process. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer iv Abstract On December 15, 1975, Patricia Kohlman interviewed Mary Kreuzer (born 1923 in Las Vegas, Nevada) in her home in Las Vegas. The two discuss Kreuzer’s childhood, as well as the different addresses that she’s lived at in Las Vegas. The interview concludes with a discussion on entertainment and small businesses before the population boom in Southern Nevada. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 5 This is an interview with Mrs. Mary Kreuzer, conducted on December 15th, 1975 at 3255 Oil Lantern Street, Las Vegas, Nevada. I was born in Las Vegas. Right there in the Las Vegas Hospital? In Las Vegas Hospital. Uh-huh. And where is that located? Right behind the Fremont Hotel. It is a very small hospital. There were only two doctors in town then. Hmm. And that's where the Fremont Parking Lot is now. That doesn't exist anymore? No, no. Well, what brought your parents here? My father came out here and he and my mother lived in Searchlight in 1918. Oh. And he was at that time looking for some (unintelligible) for his business over in Searchlight. And then they did a lot of flogging in the Mount Charleston area all the way back over to Searchlight. Las Vegas was smaller than Searchlight at that time. (Laughs) What kind of business did Mr. Cashman have over there? He had the cars, and trucks, and sailboats, same as he had, and same as his family has now. Oh. They handle the (Unintelligible) and the Oldsmobile’s. He had the GNC— So they just laid and transferred at the hospital. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 6 Uh-huh. Oh! And they moved to Las Vegas just shortly before I was born. Mm. And at that time, Las Vegas had oh, maybe fifteen hundred people. Maybe. Wow. Might've been smaller. It was by Bridger, right (unintelligible) and I imagine it does. It was right across from the school, the school band had three buildings. The first building was for kindergarten and first grade. And the second building was for third through sixth, and we had another small building, which was the high school. Mm-hmm. And I came in '33. They built another building and that housed the drugstore. And then one of the buildings burned down and they made great Las Vegas town and rebuilt the grade school. And Las Vegas High was about the center of town. As far back as I can remember, the town didn't go any further then what's now Fourth Street. (Unintelligible) This was oh, maybe a few blocks down. The Post Office was at the corner of Second and Third, (unintelligible). Mm-hmm. And then the middle of the block was the theatre. (Unintelligible) And they used to stop on the corner of Fourth Street by the theatre. Oh my gosh (Laughs) And they had what they called "Old Town". Mm-hmm. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 7 Where some people settled in the Westside area, but there were never any racial problems. Everybody was accepted, everybody was equal to one another, society's— I was going to say, they were some of the original settlers here too, right? Right, they really were. I've kept these articles on me from the Las Vegas Review, for two hundred years. Bi-Centennial, I think. And the town was a lot of fun because everybody knew everyone. Mm-hmm. And we had one man who had a grocery store and it turned into a Red Cross—anybody that got straight A's on their report cards would get a free soda or chocolate shake, or whatever they wanted you know, anytime they would bring out the report cards—she's another good lady. Mm. She lived on the corner of Fourth and Fremont and went straight down south to sell. And let's see, as far as residential areas, there were limitations on them, they just didn't go very far. Nobody had heard of anything further east than this street. Mm. Which is now Las Vegas Boulevard South. And, oh I can't think of anything, except for when the school burned down, (unintelligible) I was in the fifth grade. Fourth grade, fifth grade? (Unintelligible) And you went to school in Texas for three years? Mm-hmm. Why did it take so long? Well, it just took them forever to get their money, and they didn't have their funding for schools and things like that, way back when, the city county had to take their own things. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 8 Mm. And then Las Vegas High School was the only high school, and the kids didn't have to come all day. From Moapa Valley and from some other place, all to get an education further than sixth grade. Mm-hmm. And so, there was—it was just a completely different town before they started all the gambling areas. Do you have any ideas or speculations as to, about the distance from Searchlight? Back in the day? (Unintelligible) twenty-one, was the main reason. Because you see, the Santa Fe Railroad ran into Searchlight. Mm-hmm. And that was the closest railroad. Mm-hmm. And that was about the only railroad in Southern Nevada that even came close to Southern Nevada. We barely cut the corner there. But when (unintelligible) it came in, and ran from Los Angeles to Salt Lake City, and then Las Vegas started to grow. Do you remember Las Vegas as being prosperous--? It was just a small town really until gambling was legalized in-state. And until people found that it was a really good place to have vacations, as so forth and so on. Mm-hmm. And none of the hotels at first were building in 1942 and in 1943, El Rancho was the first hotel. And the Last Frontier came out--And so prior to that was the railroad the main business in Las UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 9 Vegas—that is, until the dam. And at that point, most of the nation was in the real depression. (Unintelligible) Mm-hmm. And of course, there was no real Boulder City at that point, so there was a lot of (unintelligible) going back and forth. I've been wondering—I've been working on a project for the last couple of weeks, and normally about (unintelligible), do you remember anything about it. Well, I don't remember so much about the Fort. And really, the only thing I remember is the swimming hole that right next to it. Mm-hmm. And I knew the people that lived in the Fort. Oh. And the people that lived across the street who shouldn't have been there. An outpost? (Laughs) And we were swimming and often got caught. (Laughs) And that was kind it. And we brought our bicycles out there. Hmm. And we also just rode our bicycles way out up to the landings, which was way out of town then. I mean, our parents didn't even like for us to go out there, it was so far out of town. What was out there at this time? They had the lakes, the original Lorenzi Swimming Pool. I don't know if you still call it that anymore. It's, yes, it's called the Twin Lakes at Lorenzi. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 10 Twin Lakes, right. I should know, since I lived in Twin Lakes up until now. But it was just a real small town. Everybody we knew, everybody was real fun, everybody came by and around to see all the special events that were in town. What kind of social events took place? Well, I don't really remember much about it until Helldorado started. And my father was very active in the Elks. Mm-hmm. And of course there was a place for people to dance. So of course, we would have some music and the accordion too. It was a really friendly, fun town. Mm-hmm. What kind of activities took place during Helldorado? Oh the same things that they do now, but they were publicized in California so that a lot of people would come up o Las Vegas. But all of the schools, all of the organizations, everyone had floats. And entries and the like, concerning Helldorado and Kangaroo Court. Mm-hmm. And a friend of mine, we were taking dancing lessons at the time, and my mother made us a donkey outfit, and I was the front of the donkey, thank goodness. (Laughs) My poor friend, she had a terrible time because our feet would get tangled and all this. It was fun. And well, like I say, we didn't really feel the depression nearly as much as the other people did. Mm-hmm. And that was because of Boulder Dam, Hoover Dam, however you want to call it. And that brought in a lot of people. And I guess the more would stay and then the businesses grew and UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 11 then the hotels came in. And then that was really how it would grew at that time. (Unintelligible) And in regards to shopping centers— Do you remember any stores you did have? Well, Mr. Beckley's had a men's shop at the corner of Fifth and Fremont. It was the union store in town, and it was the only place to buy your clothes. (Unintelligible) and started a linen shop in Las Vegas and Fremont Street. And that was the place to go to do to your shopping. (Unintelligible) And she had a shop here in a place called Gold Hill and then she came down here. Oh. And she expanded her business. And now it’s on South Las Vegas Boulevard. Until, oh I think, it might be, forty, there were no really good shopping, good stores and a lot of us just went to California to do shopping in California. That was kind of a long trip shopping, wasn't it? Well yes, but when you want to buy clothes, that's where you went. Right (Laughs) You didn't have a Penney Store, the first one that I remember was (unintelligible) on Fremont Street then it moved down to (unintelligible) and oh, there was some hardware stores. Oh, it was a little town, but lots of fun. What was travelling to Los Angeles like in those days? It was an all day journey. Really? The highways in Nevada were much better than the ones in California. Hmm. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 12 You'd get to California from Boulder and you'd have to pass the dry lake and during wet weather, it was terrible. And of course Victorville was something else, you'd get home, your car always boiled a real time—you'd get over it without boiling. Was it all paved at that time? Yes, but not like the roads are paved today. Was there anything between here and there at all? No, not really. Barstow, and everywhere along to Baker, which was also on the (Unintelligible) Railroad. Mm-hmm. Had to stop there—it was a full day's journey, to get from here to Los Angeles. Unless the police are around there, particularly up there around, Victorville, right. Was there any type of bus service between here and there? Do you remember? I don't recall any bus service, I really don't. You asked about car dealerships, Jim Cashman was one of the first, and he moved over here about (unintelligible) and then my parents moved to Boulder in 1923. Was he at the car dealership at that time? No, there was another man who had, I guess Mr. (Unintelligible) who had the car business, shortly after, and my uncle started working for Mr. Cashman, which is now Cashman Cadillac. That was the only thing—(unintelligible) It must've been quite a demand for transportation in Las Vegas. Well, the town was small, and people didn't really, none of us when we were in high school— well I did—but I was one of the few who grew up with a car, and of course I lost the keys all the time, and my father put in little tiny, ford, and instead of having to use a key, I had to slip this UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 13 little thing out and then the car would start. I never knew where I would find it, because everybody knew how to run it. Oh no. Particularly the (unintelligible) brothers who lived next to us. He would take it and bring it back and it was always empty. And at that point, my father was the textile distributor in Las Vegas. So I had to go to the Texaco station and fill up my car, put some gas in my to get to the service station (Laughs) As far as gambling is concerned, there was one area which was called the Red Light District, which was gambling and other activities that--the gambling didn't actually get started or enforced until, I would say around 1935 or '36. Was it a lot of effort to control it (unintelligible)? No, it never ever bother any of us. The local people of course, at that point, none of us gambled, it was a growing attraction from people out of state. Mm-hmm. Most of the local people didn't have (unintelligible) with gambling. Was there any (unintelligible) where they had any people or anything? No, this didn't start until oh, just really, fairly recently. So illegal gambling that took place was just people who knew about it? Right. But it wasn't prevalent, and there wasn't a lot of it. It wasn't a bit scale at all? No, no. There were public clubs when we were down in the district, where we were not supposed to go. Where was that located? Between Fremont and Ogden and Stewart Street. Mainly on First Street. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 14 Mm-hmm. And if you were caught down there, your wife wouldn't speak to you for a long time. (Laughs) So as far as eating is concerned in the restaurants, I remember a couple of Chinese places that we used to eat. And of course anytime we went out (unintelligible) would come out because it was so small, and it was a real friendly town. Nobody ever felt like an outsider at that point. People just really drive by, and they were easy to get acquainted with. I think this has a lot to do with the growth of Las Vegas because people were accepted and didn't have to put on any airs, didn't have to have a lot of money, didn't have to have a lot of anything except honesty and it was just a really good town. I've heard the comparison of people that I've interviewed say that Reno was the very social conscious city where Vegas was just kind of a down to earth city. Right and it was that way even when it was going on in 1941 or '42. What would you say was probably the eating place that you know, the nicest? Oh, Fong's was. It was a Chinese Restaurant. When did that exist or was established in this town? Oh, I—all I can say is remembering it as far—as far back as I can remember. (Laughs) That's the same one that's here on Ogden, right? Yes, uh-huh. The Fong's has been here for a long, long time. Mm-hmm. And there was never any discrimination. The thought nothing of any type of people that came into town, just accepted them all and headed into town. Uh-huh. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 15 And very little trouble in terms of (Unintelligible) And were the schools integrated at that time? Yes, and I never thought anything about it. We were all very good friends, in fact I still have some very, very good friends that live in Las Vegas, and I was really glad to see them that they were still around and doing well. That's good. We had no racial problems at all at school. Mm. The fact that there were any racial problems, it was probably more that the kids who were just really, shouldn't have been at school at all, and most of them were white. (Laughs) (Laughs) There were some troublemakers. But it was, they were fun. A fun town to grow up in, yes. What kind of school activities took place since it was the only high school? Well, we played as far as like the (unintelligible) and we played Canyon in Arizona, and indoors, and in Barstow, and some of the same ones that the high schools are playing now. But of course, there are towns (unintelligible) and that's the closest. And of course, making a trip to Reno was an all day trip. Mm. Good twelve hour drive, so we very seldom played against Reno, at that point. Mm-hmm. We'd go up to Pioche and Ely. Mm-hmm. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 16 That was the main one that we'd like to see. But the, as far as communities, as far as spirit is concerned, everyone joined in. Mm-hmm. And I remember dances around the may pole. And I was going to ask you about yearly events that were traditional-- Oh yes, we always had, when the first of May and everyone would come, all the parents, all the—all the—they closed all of the stores so that all of the merchants could see their kids in there. All the finery, you never had to worry about walking the streets on a Las Vegas night. Mm-hmm. When we moved out to, where my mother still lives, on South Six Street, which was the last house in town, we thought of nothing of going to a movie and walking home, even though it would've been six or seven miles! Oh really. And nobody thought anything about it really. What was Christmas like in Las Vegas? Was there a lot of decoration like there is now? Well, most of the decorating, we could say the power company hadn’t grown that big—they didn't have nearly as much lighting as there is now. But we always had a lot of Christmas decorations (unintelligible) parades—Christmas Parties that most of the restaurants along the way. Hmm. It was just, a little town that all of a sudden started growing. When was graduation here? And what was did that look like? UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 17 In high schools. Well, the main high school, the one and only. As I recall, we graduated on the field. Do you recall anyone from your class? I'll have to take that back. When we graduated from high school, we graduated from the (Unintelligible) Memorial Building. It was on the corner of North Fifth Street and Stewart Street. Hmm. And (unintelligible) those were our graduation ceremonies. It was, just like everything else. Everyone was friendly. How many were in your graduating class? Let's see, we had--one hundred thirty five. Oh that's a good size. But just, that was, there was only one high school. (Laughs) What type of building was the Memorial Building? It was just a big auditorium. We had a stage. Yes. They used to have a little place from school and concerts, the orchestra and the band, singing groups would go over there for those, because the only other place for those was the gymnasium at the high school. And this wasn't really conducive to everyone because your back was turned towards somebody all the time. That's right. So the war memorial building, as they called it then, had a stage and the seating room area (unintelligible) I think you had down here, if there was any particular club or bar that is your favorite— UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 18 (Laughs) Actually, there were so few places that you could call a "club." Uh-huh. When the El Rancho was built, a lot of people would go out there, and then the Frontier was built. Sunday nights, everybody in town went to the Frontier and one of the most memorable moments, and one that's happened annually, I think ever since, oh, I think it was when Liberace first started. Oh wow. And he played the piano, and the background music was recorded by the Philharmonic Orchestra. And he played with that recording. Oh. But it was a lot—it was different from how Liberace is now, he didn't try to sing. (Laughs) This was a help. (Unintelligible) Let's see here— (Tape one ends) As facilities are concerned, we had, I think two fire trucks. The fire station was on Second Street or on Fremont and Ogden. It was a volunteer fire department, and when the fire bell started ringing everybody ran to help the fire, because the town was small. Mm-hmm. It wasn't— Was there much problems with fires? UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 19 No, not that I recall. In fact it was (unintelligible) because we did get a lot of fires and they would have them every now and again. Though they did have two trucks. And the sheriff's office was right next to that. (Unintelligible) go to jail. (Laughs) (Laughs) It was just like any small town. Mm-hmm. But with a lot more fun, and then we got big. (Laughs) We had, well, when I was growing up, the first hospital that I had here, Las Vegas Hospital, and in the early 1930s, Doctor Woodberry, he was one of the board members of the School Board, and Doctor (Unintelligible) which the hospital wanted to have (unintelligible) on North Las Vegas Street. Mm-hmm. Which is still there. And still up the road. Then in 1944, there was an old (unintelligible) facility where the old folks lived. And that became another hospital, which is now the Clark County Hospital. Yes, that's the hospital. Yes, my father was the county commissioner and he told us that he was on the hospital board when they built that hospital. Mm-hmm. He was also commissioner--well, he's still the county commissioner at the end of World War II. He had to move or rather, find a space other than where Nellis Air Base is for the commercial airlines to come in. And my father traveled all over the United States for about a year and my UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 20 husband (unintelligible) his business friend, and he purchased a property, or as one of the commissioners said, he was out on the field with it. Mm-hmm. The original airport was where the Hughes Terminal is now. But everybody thought that it was much too large and that it would never be used. Do you know why they chose that particular location? That was the closest that they could get into town. Nobody would ever believe that they would need an airport. And it was very important that people could get into Las Vegas was (unintelligible) and you needed to have a good place for an airport. Of course it was way out of town then. My husband had concessions at the airport with—souvenir shop, a restaurant, the slot machines and a bar. Mm-hmm. And everybody just thought that it was a ridiculous situation—something that was just not going to work. Uh-huh. Now you have to park in a parking lot, but it's so far out, you'd have to walk further— When did you first begin to really burn? Do you—? Real big boom, just started after World War II. Mm-hmm. So many of the Air Force people that came here liked it, and stayed. Oh. And they found of course (unintelligible) and advertising and gambling, and legal gambling— What part was the first commercial airline to? UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 21 Western. Western? I'm quite sure it was. And then the other ones came. Slowly, all of them started to. Do you remember any of your father's activities when he was commissioner? Mm, I don't know. I can't really remember the things that I did do. All I can remember is that my husband was working about twelve hours a day, keeping him and my brother and law, keeping my father's business going while he was out being county commissioner. (Laughs) (Laughs) But my, of all the things that did happen in the ten years between then and World War II, just so many things, the town grew so fast. Bugsy Siegel opened the Flamingo that was quite an event, just to think that someone that everybody knew was a gangster (Laughs) but he was allowed to open the Flamingo. (Laughs) Here he was fine. Hmm. They kept a real close eye on him, he was a pretty good guy. Were the county commissioners directly involved with him at that time? Controlled gambling, or? No, by then, they did have a state gaming board. Reno's always had more gambling than Las Vegas had. But the people from Las Vegas had a better place to go, as far as finance was concerned, and that's what helped to bring a lot of people to Las Vegas and a lot of people are still here. They consider themselves natives now. (Laughs) (Laughs) UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 22 Even though there was a town here before then. So I think that mainly, Nellis Air Base helped build Las Vegas. Mm. Because so many of the people who came here, stayed. Mm-hmm. Was most of the population located within the city or within the county? Within the city. Mm. We were in the county because the El Rancho hotel, or where all of their duplexes for the army officers, and my husband was an officer, and we were married at the El Rancho Village. A lot of the people were in there of course, are now very, in politics, in social organizations since being in Las Vegas. It's so hard to remember everything without thinking about it. You asked about cab or bus services, I guess we've always had sort of like cabs, well, I don't remember any cabs, or really—the buses did start running through Las Vegas. Though I can't tell you which bus was first one to come through. But Mister (Unintelligible) started the Las Vegas to Reno bus line. What line is that? Mm, the late 1930s, because he was running the buses from 1914 to (unintelligible). But I can't—my sister was three years ahead of me, four years ahead of me, and when she first started, I don't think they were the best lines at all. Was there a lot of traffic in that Las Vegas to California, and Utah? It—yes. It continued to grow because the highways were better suited for travel than the northern part of the state. And this also helped Las Vegas grow. People coming into town, and while you do settle down in a small town, it grew too fast. It had its growing pains, but it was hard for anybody to keep up with all the (unintelligible) into town. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 23 Oh. As far as the education was concerned, they had great schools and great teachers. A lot of them now are still with the school district only because they (unintelligible) Harvey (Unintelligible) came down here in, oh I don't know, I talked to my sister who was in the United States. So I've had to be by 1936. Mm-hmm. And he's still here. A lot of principals are still here, only because the schools now are named after very prominent people. And I know all the names, and I knew the people when they were alive. It's been a lot of time because oh, like, okay, my daughter in law, she was there, and (Unintelligible) was another name, name of her school actually. It's just up straight. It's kind of fun to see all of the former teachers and the people have schools named after them. Cashman High was named after my uncle, so. Oh. Yes, there was a radio station here. It must've been started when, early 1930s. The first radio station, or well, was built by Mack Filch. It later became, I can't remember the call letters but, he used to use a lot of talent. Oh. So the one thing that I really remember the most was that I had to play the piano and I sang. (Laughs) It wasn't too great. But this is, that radio station, was way out of town at that time. But now it’s about where Maryland Parkway and Stewart Street is. Wow. But at that time, the radio station was way out on the edge of town. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 24 Hmm. But it's not at the edge of town anymore. (Laughs) We went through the financial climb back. Although, as far as the weather concerned, there's a lot more wind now because there are more trees, there are more people watering lawns, all the rest of it. What did Las Vegas look like when you were growing up? Were there many trees and grass and-- Oh yes, we all had a lot of trees, and a lot of grass. Mostly cottonwood trees. The people are of course, shying away from those now. Because so many of the people are allergic to them. (Laughs) But everyone has, a lot of (unintelligible) all the rest of it. The city hall, was where the—where's the boat now, Katie? It was, it must be where the court house is. (Unintelligible)? No, the, it was on—I think Second and Third Street. Mm-hmm, where the big building is now. But they used to have a bandstand there and every Friday, Saturday nights, a band and everyone would go to the parking lot in the nice weather. And we used to have a lot of fun with community and things like that. And everybody would go. We knew everybody that was there. The city library was on the same property. Mm-hmm. And it was just a real small building. But it was, just a real friendly, real nice community. I heard even earlier, that Fremont Street was Fremont? Oh yes. The houses down there ran up to Second Street. Mm. And that was a whole business district as I remember it. It was only from Second to Main Street. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 25 Mm. And over that, over on the edge of town, it was on Bridger and Second Street. Mm. It was just two blocks off of Fremont. Oh. It was a really neat market. I used to take my wagon and go get groceries for my mother. The Main Street, there was only one. Or I guess Fremont Street was the main street and Main Street itself was there of course. Von Tobel's Lumber Company, was the furthest thing on that end- But it was mostly business like it is today? Uh-huh. We did have one movie house which later became they El Portal. But at first it was on Second and Bridge Street. And then Mr. (Unintelligible) built that one, but they had (unintelligible) and I don't know whether it's still called the Palace Theater or not. It's on Second Street. At first, none of us were allowed to go--later on though it turned better. They had all the Frankenstein’s and we got to see those. Primary industry when I was little, just like any small town, there was no really big stores. Mm-hmm. Just little small businesses. Small businesses? Small businesses, everybody knew everybody else. So we could go (unintelligible) buy whatever is needed, and get home with it. And know that I would have the right change and all the rest of it. No identification or anything else. I don't know. Well, Ernie Cragin, the man who got the theater, was a man for years and years and years, a really fabulous man. His wife still lives here. I think she re-married. (Unintelligible) property down on Charleston. UNLV University Libraries Mary F. Kreuzer 26 Mm-hmm. Just a charming lady, just really very nice. Let's see, Mister Graftman, Marty Graftman, was another one too. Politicians in town. They all--he's very well known here. (Unintelligible) state senator. Mm-hmm. His wife still (unintelligible) I think she's going to California. (Unintelligible) Hmm. Most of the doctors have already passed away. Their widows still live here, and I get to see them two or three times a year at various events. (Laughs) Oh. The, it’s so hard to remember things off the top of my head. Why don't you let me think about this for a little bit and then I'll see what I can remember. Okay, well I really appreciate the knowledge you've given me. And taking the time to do it for me, thank you. (Laughs) (Laughs) Well, you're just real welcome for that. And I'll see if I can find some more things that would be of interest. I have boxes of (unintelligible) that you might like of old Las Vegas, and stuff like that. (Unintelligible) (Audio ends)