Skip to main content

Search the Special Collections and Archives Portal

Report on the water supply in Las Vegas, March 25, 1942






Brief history of water in Las Vegas and overview of the water situation

Digital ID


Physical Identifier

Box 75 Folder 174-2 Vol. II pt. 2 Department UPRR Water Supply-Las Vegas


hln001106. Union Pacific Railroad Collection, 1828-1995. MS-00397. Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Las Vegas, Nevada.


This material is made available to facilitate private study, scholarship, or research. It may be protected by copyright, trademark, privacy, publicity rights, or other interests not owned by UNLV. Users are responsible for determining whether permissions are necessary from rights owners for any intended use and for obtaining all required permissions. Acknowledgement of the UNLV University Libraries is requested. For more information, please see the UNLV Special Collections policies on reproduction and use ( or contact us at?

Standardized Rights Statement

Digital Provenance

Digitized materials: physical originals can be viewed in Special Collections and Archives reading room

Digital Processing Note

Manual transcription





Report on Las Vegas, Nevada Water Supply Introductory When the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad Company, following negotiations between Wm. A. Clark and E. H. Harriman, began unhindered construction of the present Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad between Caliente and Los Angeles, Clark purchased a large tract of land on both sides of the adopted line through Las Vegas. The tract embraced valuable springs two miles west of the railroad, ranch property on the northeast, and the site south of the ranch property which was decided upon as the future location of the city. This purchase, which carried with it a requirement that the adjoining Stewart Burial Plot should be supplied with 4 miners' inches of water (equal to 63,160 gallons per day), was made by deed of December 8, 1902 from Helen J., Eliza J., Wm. J. and Hiram R. Stewart and Evaline S. Coffey to W. A. Clark, who conveyed it to the SP,LA&SLRRCo. by deed of July 2, 1903. During the railroad's construction a redwood stave pipe line was laid from the springs to the Las Vegas station grounds, and a locomotive water station was erected. Upon completion of the railroad (May, 1905), the Las Vegas Land and Water Company was incorporated, and the ranch and townsite areas were conveyed to it by deed of May 8, 1905. Clark's Las Vegas Townsite was platted and placed on the market, and the LVLandWCo. laid its distribution system of water pipes through the new townsite; these lines were of redwood stave pipe. Connection was made with the railroad water main transmission line at the edge of the station grounds, a meter being installed to measure the water delivered to the LVLandWCo. The contract now in effect between the LA&SLRRCo. and the LVLandWCo. for the joint use of the springs, etc., and the water main transmission lines is dated March 30, 1929 (Audit No. 7322). It provides for a monthly charge to be borne by the Water Company for its share of the cost of the water used based on the consumption by each company. The costs are revised at the beginning of each year to include the preceding year's changes in the LA&SL investment in the plant, and to substitute the cost of maintenance and operation of the plant, and quantities of water supplied, for the corresponding figures of the year before. LA&SLRRCo. Springs. Wells. Settling Basin. Reservoir and Water Main Transmission Lines used jointly There are three springs, one of which, called the Middle, or Open Spring, has not been utilized in the water system because its water has been until now contaminated by vegetable matter. This spring delivers from 300,000 to 400,000 gallons daily. The Big and Little Springs supplied all the water needed until 1925, when artesian well No. 1 was drilled. The water is relatively pure, excellent for domestic use, though hard, and is treated for locomotive use, but is delivered to city consumers in its natural state. The great increase in the population of Las Vegas from about 5000 in 1928 to 12,000 in 1941, due first to the construction of the Boulder Dam improvement, and recently to the national defense program of industrial development in the Las Vegas area, has necessitated the drilling of a number of wells to supplement the available water supply. Well No. 2 was provided in 1936 and in 1939 Nos. 3 and 4 were drilled; Wells Nos. 5 and 6 were added in 1941, and four more, Nos. 7, 8, 9 and 10 are now under contract. That pumping would become necessary in time has long been foreseen, and it is now planned to equip new Wells 5, 6 and 9 and the older No. 4 at once with electrically operated pumps, powered from the railroad power plant in Las Vegas. The water entering these springs and wells is part of the drainage into the Las Vegas Basin or Valley from surrounding mountains, notable among which is Mount Charleston (nearly 12,000 feet). It has been established that the volume of water underlying the surface is limited, though the total available for use has never been determined. Since 1907 more than three hundred wells have been drilled in this valley, and from some of them water has been allowed to waste continuously. The State Engineer, realizing that this condition should be corrected, has called attention to the need for the capping of all unused wells, but this has not been done and the waste continues. More serious waste, perhaps, has been through the lax practices of city consumers in Las Vegas (referred to further on in this report), and from leakage of the wood stave pipes heretofore used in our transmission and city distribution lines, the last of which were only replaced with cast iron pipe late in 1941. Mr. Reinhardt, in a letter of May 6, 1940 to Mr. Jeffers, on President's file 353-2-L, expressed the opinion that there is ample water in the Las Vegas Basin to supply a population several times as large as that of 1940, but said that, in order to keep this supply available at minimum production cost, it will be necessary to avoid all waste. In a subsequent letter, dated September 23, 1940, Mr. Reinhardt told Mr. Jeffers that we were getting a localized decline in volume of water which could only be remedied by obtaining another source a considerable distance from the original source area, and drawing part of our requirements from it. This need is being met, it is believed, in the more recent wells, and particularly in the four now being drilled. To enable this expansion of the controlled water bearing area, additional land adjoining the original property was purchased. (Tracts Nos. 2 and 4, map No. 1). It is the consensus of expert opinion that the pumping from Well No. 5 will bring about the drying up of the troublesome Middle Spring, which otherwise is scheduled for the installation of a chlorinating plant addition in 1942. The water from the two springs and the wells passes through a settling basin to a reservoir whose capacity (2,500,000 gallons), has been found sufficient during nine months of the year, but during recent years equal to less than one-half day's supply in the peak periods of summer heat. From the reservoir to the town, the flow is by gravity, there being a difference in elevation of eighty-one feet in the two miles of distance. Pumps are, however, to be installed at the reservoir to increase the pressure as may be needed at the points of delivery to the LVLAnd WCo. distribution system. The original single water transmission line has in recent years been supplemented by a second cast iron pipe line,delivering water to the northerly portion of the city. There is a well In the railroad yard at Las Vegas, ordinarily used for railroad purposes only but on occasion in past years, during hot weather periods, brought into use to supplement the supply available for city consumers. It has provided a million gallons of water daily, but is now producing 650,000 gallons. The production in gallons per day of the springs and wells has varied considerably, as may be seen from the tabulation below. 2-9-28 1938 9-13-39 9-25-41 Big Spring 1,100,000 1,045,000 878,000 677,160 Little Spring 970,000 1,001,000 878,000 709,560 Well No. 1 3,100,000 2,114,000 2,005,000 1,866,240 Well No. 2 - 3,278,073 952,000 978,480 Well No. 3 - ????????????? ? 907,200 Well No. 4 ? ? ? 447,120 Well No. 5 ? - - 381,024 Well No. 6 ? ? - 531,360 6,498,144 The yield of the foregoing springs and wells for 1942 has been conservatively estimated at 6 6,000,000Gal, per day Additional water is anticipated from:- Pumps Installed in Wells Nos. 5 and 6 1 ,000,000 " " Well No. 4 500,000 New Wells Nos. 7 and 8 now being drilled 1 ,550,000 " " 9 and 10 " " 1 .550.000 10 ,600,000 Add to the foregoing the dependable capacity of the well in the railroad yard 650.000 Total available in 1942 (estimated) 11 ,250,000Gal per day Last year's maximum city demand was 6 ,100,000 Est. new services in 1942 may be expected to draw a maximum of 1 ,692,000 Est. 1942 maximum railroad demand is 800,000 Contingency for Basic Magnesium, Inc. and cushion 1 .000.000 Frank Strong's est. of Feb. 5, 1942 9 ,592,000Gal This would indicate that the present system of wells and the two springs are adequate for the needs of the city for 1942 and 1943, but Mr. Strong in a telegram of February 12, following a visit to Las Vegas the day before said he felt certain that all of the facilities except perhaps one of the last two wells, will be needed this year. LVLandWCo. Distribution of Water to City Consumers From 1905 to 1927, the LVLandWCo. with its distribution lines served only consumers in Clark's Las Vegas Townsite, but in the latter year a pipe line was laid northerly from the LA&SL transmission line west of the station grounds to reach the original Las Vegas Townsite. In 1928, purchase of the water systems of the Hawkins Land and Water Co. and S. W. Craner gave the company access to Hawkins Addition, Hawkins South Addition, Buck's Subdivision, Fairview and Pioneer Heights. In 1930 the water lines of the Parkview Mutual Water Co. were acquired, and in 1934 the South Nevada Land and Development Company conveyed Its lines in Wardie Addition to the LVLandWCo. More recently the company has extended its distribution system to reach the new and rapidly filling subdivisions of Vega Verdi, Park Place, H.F.M. & M. Additions and the Federal Housing Project, and authority has been given to extend water lines into Gibson & Jones and Biltmore additions. Except for a very small area provided for by independents, the entire city is supplied with water from the LVLandWCo.'s mains. All of the newer and many of the older homes are landscaped; this principally accounts for the substantial increase in water consumption per customer compared with the average of several years ago. The purchased distribution lines were mostly of wood stave pipe; with the exception of wrought iron pipe used in 1907 and 1910, the LVLandWCo. used wood stave pipe exclusively in new construction and replacements until 1927, when cast iron pipe was introduced into the system. About that time the wood pipe began to be expensive to maintain on account of termites, and penetration by tree and shrub roots. All wood pipe and wrought iron pipe in the entire system has been replaced with cast iron, the greater part of the replacements being carried out in 1941. The change will eliminate the former losses of water due to leakage in the mains. It also will reduce future maintenance costs to a minimum. Meters are not permitted under a state law affecting cities of over 4,500 population, and there is a prodigal use of water, particularly during the heated term when very high temperatures prevail. The low water pressure resulting from the gravity system - ranging from 35 to 20 pounds - has had a bearing upon the waste observable in sprinkling lawns; another removable item of loss has been seen in negligent operation of air conditioning apparatus, of which there is much in the city. From time to time the attention of the public has been directed by advertisements in the city newspapers to the waste of water by consumers, and such educational work will, it is hoped, produce lasting results. There is a city ordinance relating to wasteful use of water, passed in July, 1939, but it has not been enforced. Last year, however, the city assigned a special uniformed officer during the heated term to look after the wasting of water by any and every means, and the LVLandWCo. paid one half of his salary. The results were very satisfactory. The LVLandWCo.'s water rates conform to a schedule fixed by the Public Service Commission of Nevada and made effective on Sept. 1, 1931. These rates, an example of which is found in the monthly charge averaging two dollars for a residence, are not considered excessive by the residents, and in fact they compare favorably with the charges in other interior cities of the southwest where comparable desert heat conditions are found. The LVLandWCo. operates in Las Vegas under a fifty year franchise granted February 21, 1930 (Audit No. 7641). Income from and cost of operation of Las Vegas water supply: The attached statement presents a 12 year summary of the LVLandWCo.'s income account, insofar as it is related to the Las Vegas water supply plant, Including revenue from sale of water and miscellaneous revenue; operating expenses (setting forth separately depreciation accruals and charges under work orders for renewal of water mains), payments for rent of LA&SLRR springs, wells, transmission lines, etc., and taxes paid. Depreciation upon the original LVLandW. plant was accrued at rates which, by the close of 1920 had, with the exception of $746.32, equalled the amount recorded in investment account. Accruals of depreciation then ceased until 1928, when a rate of 2% per annum was approved for cast iron pipe laid in the preceding year. The fact that Investment account had been increased by the sum of $3,540.88 in 1924, representing additional wood pipe laid, appears to have been overlooked, as this sum was not included in the amount on which depreciation was thereafter accrued. Depreciation accruals at the rate of 2% per annum were continued until the close of 1940, being applied to the investment in the shortlived pipe lines acquired from Hawkins, Craner and Parkview Companies as well as the cast iron piping laid by the LVLandWCo., to which the rate was applicable. The wood pipe laid in 1924 and the purchased lines having been replaced, with cast iron in the last two or three years, it follows that depreciation accruals have not been adequate to account for all the property retired. The annual depreciation rate was changed to 1 1/4%, effective January 1, 1941. This appears adequate for the present cast iron pipe, allowing for it a service life of 80 years. It also is adequate to build up a reserve against which may be charged the cost of future replacements. The depreciation reserve in the past has not been charged with the cost of property retired in connection with replacements. Such changes were accounted for on a betterment basis, i.e., the estimated current cost to replace the property retired was charged direct to operating expenses and only the excess cost of the cast iron pipe laid in its place over the cost at current prices of the discarded wood pipe was capitalized. Obviously such accounting has been advantageous from an income tax viewpoint. The composition of the amount paid annually as rent for the joint use of LA&SL springs, wells, pipe lines, etc., is Indicated by the following example applicable to the calendar year 1939: Valuation of property January 1, 1938 $193,336.27 Changes during the year - Total at January 1, 1939 193,336.27 Water used in 1938: For railroad purposes 108,060, 353 gallons 12.22% For LVLandWCo. 776,082, 840 '' 87.78% 884,143, 193 '' 100.00% Interest on $193,336.27 at 6% $11,600. 18 Depreciation " at 4% 7,733. 45 Insurance 25. 00 Taxes " at 1.75% 3,383. 38 Maintenance and operation cost 628. 34 23,370. 35 LVLandWCo. - - 87.78% = $ 20,514.48 The valuation heretofore used for the jointly used property was based on incomplete data, and will no doubt be revised to conform to the figure of $284,772.21 which we are giving to Mr. Wipprecht, effective January 1, 1942. The LVLandWCo. itself produces no water; its entire supply being purchased from the LA&SLRRCo. Under such conditions the sales of water made by the LVLandWCo. could not exceed the gallons purchased by it under meter readings from the LA&SLRRCo. However a comparison of the gallons shown by the meter readings with the gallons reported by the LVLandWCo. to the Nevada Public Service Commission as being sold to customers, discloses the following discrepancies: Year Meter sales by LA&SL to LVLandWCo. Sales to customers reported to NPSC by LVLandWCo. Excess of sales reported over known sources of supply (Gallons) 1930 581,867,800 581,692,500 175,300 1931 650,000,000 650,000,000 ? 1932 756,924,000 756,919,000 5,000 1933 814,096,600 814,096,600 ? 1934 868,932,898 876,933,029 8,000,131 1935 909,361,000 907,437,262 1,923,738 1936 962,277,900 886,810,608 75,467,292 1937 853,960,940 938,702,963 84,742,023 1938 776,082,840 1,036,143,300 260,060,460 1939 851,502,515 968,071,100 116,568,585 1940 1,032,413,100 1,217,410,000 184,996,900 1941 1,131,948,800 1.484.687,800 352,739,000 Total 10,189,368,393 11,118,904,162 929,535,769 Mr. Bracken states that the sales reported to the Commission "may be considered as accurate as can be obtained. Any discrepancies between this and B/Cs rendered by R.R.Co. are due to adjustments made by this office account Clark Street meter dial turning completely over during month or meter stopped and consumption estimated". PROPERTY OF LA&SLRRCo., JOINTLY USED UNDER THE CONTRACT OF MARCH 30, 1929, AUDIT NO. 7322, WITH THE LVLandWCo. 869. 47 acres of land west of Las Vegas station grounds, in which are the springs, settling basin, reservoir and most of the wells and pipe lines; acquired by W. A. Clark December 8, 1902 (Tract No. 1 on Map No. 1 attached). $ 24 ,787. 48 80. 00 acres of land in of NE S. 31, T. 20 S.,R. 61 E. acquired in 1937 (Tract No. 2 on Map No. 1). 1 ,604. 80 120. 00 acres of land in SW of SE; SE of SW and Lot 4, S. 30, T. 20 S., R. 61 E. acquired in 1941 (Tract No. 3 on Map No. 1). 452. 15 161. 30 acres of land in SE S. 31, T. 20 S., R. 61 E. acquired in 1941 (Tract No. 4 on Map No. 1 attached). 8 ,141. 45 1230. 77 acres - Total land 34 ,985. 88 Wells Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 48 ,115. 85 Settling basin and reservoir 57 ,830. 65 Water main transmission lines shown by yellow lines on Map No. 1 comprising: 1346 3125 7867 10441 3646 954 27379 feet 10" cast iron pipe '' 12" M IgW M M W H 24'' " " " " 16" transite pipe " 24" riveted steel pipe " of water main transmission lines 143 ,839. 83 Total investment of the LA&SLRRCo. 284,772.21 INVESTMENT IN THE PROPERTY The investment in the property considered in this report aggregates $417,316.93 as of December 51, 1941. Of that amount $284,772.21 is invested by the LA&SLRR Co. and $132,544.72 by the LVLandWCo. A general classification of these investments follows: PROPERTY OF THE LVLandWCo. Pipe line water distribution system, in the City of Las Vegas, shown by red lines on Map No. 2 attached. 995 feet 3" wrot iron pipe 34,376 " 4" cast iron pipe 39,157 " 6" " " " 26,263 " 3" " " " 3,042 " 10" " " " 1,420 " 12" " " " 105,253 " distribution lines - $131 ,074 .86 Work shop and equipment - 1 ,469 .86 Total investment of the LVLandWCo. 132 ,544 .72 Indicative of what may be added to the property in the current year are the following estimates included in the 1942 budge 4- and carryover: PROPERTY OF LA&SLRRCo. JOINTLY USED UNDER THE CONTRACT OF MARCH 30, 1929 WITH THE LVLandWCo. Carried over from 1941: W.O. 1537, 2 wells, Nos. 3 and 4, etc. and purchase of 200 acres of land 0 .63 W.O. 1815, 2 wells, Nos. 5 and 6, etc. 12 ,230 .19 1942 budget: 2 wells, Nos. 7 and 8, etc. including pipe lines shown in broken yellow lines on Map No. 1 (W.O. 2013) 65 ,700 .00 2 wells Nos. 9 and 10, etc. including pipe lines shown in broken yellow lines on Map No. 1 (W. 0. 2029) 80 ,200 .00 158 ,130 .82 PROPERTY OF THE LVLandWCo. Carried over from 1941: W.O. 388 pipe line to ranch 8,883.47 " 429 " " Grandview Add'n. 415.71 " 431 " " H.F.M. & M. Add'n. 7,785.98 1942 budget: Pipe lines, W. 0. 437 - 6010 ft. shown in broken red lines on Map No. 2 $13,950.00 " " 439 - 1160 " Do 4,700.00 )t " 440 - 4040 " Do 9,000.00 !) " 444 - 1200 " Do 1,710.00 H Fairview, State St. School, Pioneer Wardie and Boulder Syndicate Additions 17,200.00 Additional defense housing projects 50,000.00 Il3;645.16 Total projected additional investment in 1942 271,775.93 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Adequacy of water supply: Of primary Importance is the extent of the available water supply. This has not been determined, but Mr. R. G. Greene of Mr. Reinhardt's staff made a preliminary survey of artesian water conditions in Las Vegas Valley; his report dated October 9, 1939 (in the President's file), appears to be the most illuminating contribution to general knowledge on the subject of sources and available supply of underground water in that area. At the time it was thought that wells Nos. 1 to 4 would be sufficient to supply the needs of the city and the railroad until 1945, but the phenominal growth of Las Vegas since the date of the report, which is continuing, could not then have been anticipated. Experience derived from the operation of the LA&SLRRCo.'s springs and wells has given ample assurance that with car in its use, there is enough water available from our springs and our six wells to supply a city of 30,000 in addition to what must be reserved for railroad use. Whether there is enough for the still larger population which may be centered in Las Vegas within the next year cr two will probably be indicated by the flow from the four wells Nos. 7, 8, 9 and 10 now under construction which are being drilled in an area hitherto unoccupied. Unless it has been established that the output of wells Nos. 1 and 2 can not be restored to something like the original volume (see page 5 of this report) a reasonable expenditure on these two may be productive of excellent results. There has been a great deal of waste of water in the Las Vegas Valley, and in a considerable measure this condition persists. Until the wood stave pipes which quite recently underlaying the principal part of the city and several of its platted additions were replaced with cast iron pipe, the constantly recurring leaks in the mains accounted for a considerable loss of water both visible and annoying to the townspeople. Under the circumstances it must have been difficult to obtain serious regard to the company's reiterated complaints concerning citizens who leave their lawn hose running all day and operate air conditioning devices with continuous streams of water throughout their waking hours. Last year marked the end of the wooden mains and their wasteful leaks; and last summer a beginning was made of police regulation of water use, a uniformed officer being maintained for three months at the equal joint expense of the city and the LVLandWCo. to call attention to waste and secure its correction. Lasting effect of this educational work can only be assured by continuing the officer during a series of hot weather seasons. At the peak of the heated term last year the per capita use of water was 600 gallons per day, and this should be reduced by 50% at least, through persistent educational effort and enforcement of the city ordinance relating to waste of water. There will always be a tendency to waste rather than to conserve water under a system which forbids metering, as in Nevada, by state law. Efforts to have this law repealed should be continued. There are many uncapped artesian wells in the Valley, their product flowing to waste. The situation should be corrected; it would involve considerable expense in some cases, and this may explain why nothing (as it is said) is done about it, but a remedy would seem to be open by the passage of a state law forbidding the waste of this, one of Nevada's most valuable natural resources, and providing for the capping of wells by the counties at the expense of the owners if they do not promptly attend to it themselves. There seems a possibility that further expansion of our water bearing land holdings, if it should be needed, may be hampered by the difficulties that would be met if efforts were made to buy the Lorenzi tract on the north of our wells and the northerly 300 acres in Section 5, south of our property, the latter including the flowing Sund well. These properties, outlined in green on map No. 1, are now owned by parties who propose to use them for home sites. The Government Defense Plant Corporation, through Basic Magnesium, Incorporated, I understand, is constructing a 40 inch pipe line from Lake Mead to the site chosen for the magnesium plant at Bracken now under construction. This line should be able, also, to supply the needed water for the recently authorized manganese plant, and for a second magnesium plant and an aluminum plant, if these latter industries should be located at or near Las Vegas. It may be adequate for more extended use. On January 13, this year, the Las Vegas Chamber of Commerce adopted a resolution recommending to the boards of the city and county commissioners that they take immediate steps to form a water district, the purpose of which should be to bring water to Las Vegas Valley from Lake Mead, and to distribute the water, or to contract with theLVLandW Co. for its distribution. The method by which the outlay for construction would be financed was apparently not discussed. If a connection were made (at or near the magnesium plant) with the pipe line now under construction from Lake Mead to Bracken, this would mean a 5 mile extension to reach Las Vegas which could be made at reasonable cost. Unless the city's growth should result in a demand for more water for domestic use than we are able to provide, it would seem that the Lake Mead supply may be limited to Industrial use, and need never be joined with our own. In an editorial in the Las Vegas Age of January 9, 1942, found In the President's file 353-2-L, dealing with the city's water supply, present and prospective, the statement is confidently made that there is "no present or prospective lack of water for the present city nor several times its size", and this Is supplemented by the reflection that, "We have, it is true, desired to conserve our crystal-clear pure artesian water for city use *** " From this I gather that local opinion rates the supply from our springs and wells much higher in quality than the Lake Mead product, and that a mixture of the two would not be welcomed for domestic consumption. Mr. Jeffers, in an address before the local Rotary Club, reported in the Las Vegas Evening Review-Journal of June 19, 1941, made a prophecy which is being fulfilled: "There will be a tremendous development in the immediate area surrounding Las Vegas as a result of expanding national defense. *** There's no place in Africa which will develop and develop as fast as Las Vegas In the near future. Whether this development goes as far as is now indicated it will, depends largely on an adequate water supply". Urging that the people of Las Vegas take immediate steps in order to tap the vast storage of Lake Mead, Mr. Jeffers said, "We can develop enough water from underground sources for ordinary use, but for big operations such as are now planned for Las Vegas there is only one source that IS sufficient - Lake Mead." Giving his opinion that Clark County should not need to bear the expense of bringing water from Lake Mead, he added, "There should be no difficulty in getting Government approval for an expenditure to provide water for industry, and I believe it can be done". There has been at times a pronounced measure of agitation in favor of municipal ownership of the water supply but this has been weakened by the removal of causes of justifiable complaint against the company. Our recent practice of extending distribution mains into the newer parts of the city as rapidly as conditions warrant, and replacing with cast iron the worn out wood stave piping, and the heavy expenditures for increasing the supply of water, must have greatly strengthened local opinion in our favor. The unprecedented growth of the city, and that anticipated, calls for new sewers and schools, street paving and lighting, fire fighting equipment, recreational facilities and administrative buildings, along with increased police protection and health and sanitary measures. No considerable share of these essential public services can be paid for out of current revenues, notwithstanding Increased tax rates which are limited to $1.50 per $100 of assessed valuation. There has been recently secured from the Federal Government a grant of $800,000 for sewer extensions and upward of $110,000 for schools, but a large bond issue will be re-required, notwithstanding. These circumstances will almost certainly remove from the popular mind any thought of the municipality's purchasing the LVLandW. efficient system of water mains and the springs and wells, etc., for years to come. There is of course the possibility that the Federal Government may be persuaded to construct a pipe line from Lake Mead to Las Vegas, and in that case the purchase for the city of the LVLand W. and LA&SL water facilities might well be included. It seems to me doubtful at the present time and under present conditions, but if it should develop I judge that adequate compensation would be paid to us. The following is a summary of the estimated 1941 valuations of property in the City of Las Vega3, indicative of the approximate share of the purchase price of our water supply which we should have to bear if the city should buy it and float an issue of bonds out of which to meet the purchase price: Office of Manager of Properties, Omaha, Nebraska. March 25, 1942 U.P.R.R.Co. LVLandW.Co. Other property owners $ 827,264 213,043 4,647,346 14.54% 3.74% 81.72% Total $ 5,688,153 100.00%